Psych Study Guide3

Psych Study Guide3 - Chapter9Memory ,ourabilityto...

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Chapter 9- Memory Memory - any indication that learning has persisted over time, our ability to store and retrieve information Flashbulb Memory Flashbulb Memory - Unique and highly emotional moment leading to a clear, strong, and persistent memory (not free from errors) Stages of Memory : Encoding Storage Retrieval - The Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory, b) short term memory , and c) long-term memory - Some information skips the first two stages enters LTM automatically - We select (through attention)- important information - Short-term memory is more complex Working Memory - Alan Baddeley (2002)- auditory and visual processing controlled by the central executive. An episode buffer allows simultaneous verbal and visual (talk and drive) (frontal for complex thinking, parietal and temporal for visual and auditory) Encoding : Getting Information In How We Encode- 1. Automatic- space/time/frequency/the episodes of life. 2. Effortful- new and unusual, or more abstract (school work) Ebbinghaus : Amount remembered depends on the time spent learning Memory Effects: Serial position effect - our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list Next-in-line Effect: so anxious about being next, you don’t remember input from the person immediately before you, but you can recall what other people around you say Spacing Effect: better retention when rehearsed over time What we encode : MEANING, IMAGES, and ORGANIZATION Visual Encoding- Mental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding Link Method - Involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together Organizing Information for Encoding - Break down complex information into broad concepts: chunking or hierarchy Chunking : Organizing items into a familiar, maneageable unit. Try to remember the numbers below. (Acronyms- another way of chunking) Hierarchy - Complex information – broad concepts… subdivided into categories/subcategories Storage : Retaining Information- Three Types of Memory Events > Sensory Memory >Working Memory > Encoding >Long Term Or >Working Memory <Retrieval < Long Term Or >Working Memory to Retrieval Sensory Memory Whole Report - the exposure time for the stimulus is so small that items cannot be rehearsed (letters flashed in the yellow square) Partial Report - Sperling (1960) argued that sensory memory capacity was larger than what was originally thought -The longer the delay, the greater the memory loss. Sensory Memories- The duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses (Iconic: .5 sec long, sight; Echoic: 3-4 sec long-Hearing ;Hepatic < 1 sec long hand Working Memory - short term memory that involves conscious, active, processing of incoming auditory and visual spatial info Brown/Peterson and Peterson (1958/1959) measured duration of working memory by manipulating rehearsal. The duration of the working memory is about 20 sec
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Psych Study Guide3 - Chapter9Memory ,ourabilityto...

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