Psychology

Psychology - Psychologyscienceofbehaviorandmental

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Psychology - science of behavior and mental processes (rigorous scientific tool to investigate what we do) Behavior- anything an organism does Mental Processes : internal, subjective… sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, feelings Science : a way of asking and answering questions: sift opinions and evaluate ideas with careful observation and rigorous analysis -The American Psychological Association is the largest organization of psychology with 160,000 members world-wide, followed by the British Psychological Society with 34,000 members. Psychology’s Big Debate Nature vs. Nurture- Darwin stated that nature selects those that best enable the organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment (Finches on diff islands have diff beaks depending on what they need to use it for) Three Main Levels of Analysis Psychological Influences: Learned fears and other learned expectations Emotional responses Cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations Biological Influences: Genetic predispositions Genetic mutations Social-Cultural Influences: Presence of others Cultural, societal, and family expectations Psychology’s Current Perspectives Neuroscience- How the body and brain enables emotions? Evolutionary - How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes Behavior Genetics - How much our genes and our environments influence our individual differences? Psychodynamic - How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts? Behavioral - How we learn observable responses? (only really deals with behaviors Cognitive - How we encode, process, store and retrieve information? Social-Cultural - How behavior and thinking carry across situations and cultures? Psychology’s Subfields: Research Biological - Explore the links between brain and mind – 9.9% Developmental - Study changing abilities from womb to tomb – 24.6% Cognitive - Study how we perceive, think, and solve problems – 8.0% Personality - Investigate our persistent traits – 4.8% Social - Explore how we view and affect one another – 21.6% (Others: Psychometrics – 5.5%; Experimental – 14.1%; Other – 11.5%) Psychology’s Subfields: Applied Clinical - Studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders 67% Counseling - Helps people cope with academic, vocational, and marital challenges 15% Educational - Studies and helps individuals in school and educational settings – 9% Industrial/Organizational - Studies and advises on behavior in the workplace 6% Clinical Psychology vs. Psychiatry A clinical psychologist (Ph.D.) studies, assesses, and treats troubled people with psychotherapy Psychiatrists on the other hand are medical professionals (M.D.) who use treatments like drugs and psychotherapy to treat
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Psychology - Psychologyscienceofbehaviorandmental

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