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Quiz_Review_3 - Jennessa Payne GRA111 Graphic Design...

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Jennessa Payne GRA111 Graphic Design History I Fall 2007 Quiz Review #3 Chapters 8, 9, and 10 1. Compare (very, very briefly) the 1600s and 1700s, in terms of graphic design innovation. In terms of graphic design innovation, the 1600’s were a “drought of graphic design creativity” and the 1700’s were “an epoch of typographic originality.” 2. What is Romain du Roi ? How was the 2,304-square grid applied for its design? Was it effective? Romain du Roi was a typeface developed in France at the express order of King Louis XIV. The letters were made with a square that was divided into an 8 x 8 grid, and each small square was divided into 36 smaller units. Mathematical harmony was achieved by measurement and the use of drafting instruments, yet the refinement gained by the 2304 square grid was worthless when reduced to text-size types. 3. During the 1700s, “the calligrapher was being replaced by the engineer as the dominant typographic influence.” Explain. The calligrapher was being replaced by the engineer as the dominant typographic influence during the 1700’s because type was moving towards being a more mathematically driven art form. 4. What is rococo ? Rococo is “fanciful French art and architecture that flourished about 1720 until around 1770. It was florid and intricate, used S- and C-curves, included scrollwork, tracery, and plant forms. 5. In France, during the 1700s, typefounders very often collaborated with printers. Why? Typefounders very often collaborated with printers because the French law prevented typefounders from printing; which led to collaborations. 6. While the French aristocracy was living it up, what was going on among “the masses”? The wealthy were shown living extravagant, sensuous lives- oblivious to the “growing militancy of the poverty stricken masses.” 7. What are the advantages of copperplate engraving? Who were some of its practitioners in 18 th century England? Copperplate Engraving was “an ideal medium for expressing the florid curves of the rococo sensibility” and was used for labels, business cards, letterheads, etc. Some of its practitioners in 18 th century England were George Bickham and John Pine. • 1 •
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8. What became of serifs when copperplate engraving was used to print type? “Serifs and thin strokes were reduced to the delicate scratch of the engraver’s finest tool” when copperplate engraving was used to print type. 9. Why did England contribute so little to typographic design until the 1700s? England contributed so little to typographic design until the 1700s because of the civil war, religious persecution, harsh censorship, and government control of printing. 10. How were the Caslon types spread across the world? Who brought them to America, and for what very important document were they used?
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