Lecture 3 - Immunology of Infection & Vaccines

Lecture 3 - Immunology of Infection & Vaccines -...

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EVO Edwin Oaks, Ph.D. George Mason University Fall 2006 IMMUNOLOGY OF INFECTION AND VACCINES Edwin Oaks, Ph.D. George Mason University Fall 2008
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EVO BASIC IMMUNOLOGY Self vs foreign Immune response to “self” = autoimmunity = not good! Previous exposure to a disease renders one less susceptible to same or related disease in future Jenner - cowpox/smallpox How is “protection” from future disease developed? Immunity : inherited, acquired or induced resistance to infection by a specific pathogen or foreign substance
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EVO Anatomy of the Immune System
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EVO The Immune System Humoral Immunity Cellular Immunity Adaptive or Acquired Immune System Innate Immune System Skin Macrophages Neutrophils NK cells Chemokines Interferon Antibodies B cells Plasma Cells CD4+ T cells CD8+ T cells CTL Antigen specific receptors
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EVO Mechanisms of Immunity Vaccines are usually designed to stimulate protective immune responses Immune correlates of protection Type of response associated with protection » Antibodies » T cells Specificity of immune response associated with protection » Requires identity of antigen(s) via antigen discovery Quantity or level of immune response » High titer = better, more effective protection
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EVO Basic Immunology Foreign object (pathogen) enters host and evokes a response designed to eliminate the pathogen Innate immune response vs Adaptive immune response Innate response: the initial defense against infection Evoked by: Phagocytic cells » Polymorphonuclear cells (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils) Antigen presenting cells (APCs) » Macrophages » Dendritic cells Antimicrobial peptides complement
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EVO Innate Immune Response Immediate recognition of foreign structures Uses germ-line receptors on cell surface Recognize limited number of highly conserved microbial structures PAMP : pathogen-associated molecular patterns » LPS » DNA (specific sequences unique to microbes) » Flagella Receptors for PAMPs are called: Pattern recognition receptors ( PRR ) toll-like receptors (TLR) Expressed on surface of cells involved in innate immune response Dendritic cells and macrophages Upon binding of PAMP to TLR - APCs are stimulated » pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines » type I interferon (IFN- α or IFN- β ) » maturation of DCs » Initiates adaptive immune response
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Toll-like Receptors One type of PRR (pattern recog. Receptor) is the toll-like-receptor (TLR). All TLRs possess: amino-terminal leucine-rich repeats -responsible for recognition of PAMPs. Carboxyl-terminal toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-required for intracellular signaling. Leucine-rich repeats
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Lecture 3 - Immunology of Infection & Vaccines -...

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