Lecture 7 - Vaccine development strategies part 2

Lecture 7 - Vaccine development strategies part 2 - Vaccine...

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EVO Vaccine Development Strategies, Part 2 Edwin Oaks BIOL 420 Section 2 Vaccines George Mason University
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EVO Introduction There are two broad categories of vaccines, active and passive ACTIVE Vaccines Stimulates the immune system to produce specific antibodies or cellular immune responses or both which would protect against or eliminate a disease PASSIVE Vaccines A preparation of antibodies that neutralizes a pathogen and is administered before or around the time of known or potential exposure
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EVO Vaccine Technology Viral Bacterial Recombinant virus Recombinant viral vector Recombinant bacterial Recombinant bacterial vector Whole Pathogen Protein-based Peptide-based Polysaccharide- based Anti-idiotypic antibodies Live Vaccines Non-Living Vaccines DNA Vaccines “Naked” DNA Facilitated DNA Viral Delivery Bacterial Delivery Polyclonal antibodies Monoclonal antibodies Natural Human Recombinant Human Recombinant Humanized Antibodies Active Vaccines Passive Vaccines
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EVO Comparative Properties of Active Vaccines CHARACTERISTICS Able to replicate within the host Attenuated in pathogenicity ADVANTAGES May elicit broader immune response May require fewer doses Generally longer lasting protection CHARACTERISTICS Unable to replicate within the host ADVANTAGES Cannot multiply or revert to pathogenicity Generally less reactogenic Non-transmissible to another individual CHARACTERISTICS Stimulate synthesis of antigens in cells of host ADVANTAGES Elicit cellular immune responses Standardized method of production Live Vaccines Non-Living Vaccines DNA Vaccines
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EVO Sub-Unit Vaccines Components Carrier Immunogen Adjuvant Vaccine
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EVO Sub-Unit Vaccine Components Detailed Immunogen : a molecule which induces a specific immune response (antibodies or T cell). Carrier : An immunogenic protein to which a hapten or a weakly immunogenic antigen is bound. May also be a living organism (or vector) bearing genes for expression of the foreign hapten or antigen on its surface. Increase immune response by providing T-cell help to antigen or hapten Adjuvant : an immunological agent used in combination with a specific antigen that increases the immune response to the antigen over what the antigen alone stimulates
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EVO Protein-Based Vaccines Developing a protein-based vaccine is the strategy of choice for many pathogens in which a protein contains protective epitopes. Genetic, biochemical and immunological techniques have been used to identify the antigenic specificity of protective antibodies. Protein-Based vaccines can be developed using four main methodologies: Natural methods Chemical Inactivation Methods Genetic Inactivation Methods Recombinant Polypeptides Development
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EVO Protein-Based Vaccines Natural Methods The first protein-based vaccine relied on non-recombinant sources of antigen
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Lecture 7 - Vaccine development strategies part 2 - Vaccine...

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