Respiratory System

Respiratory System - Respiratory System Mechanics of...

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Respiratory System Mechanics of Breathing Gas Exchange and Transport
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Gas Exchange • CO 2 and O 2 Occurs between the atmosphere + blood in the lungs (pulmonary circulation) Occurs between the blood and the cells in the tissues (systemic circulation) Requires ventilation: movement of air Inspiration, expiration Requires gas transport: lungs ↔ cells Coordination of both respiratory + cardiovascular systems
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Figure 17-1
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Anatomy – Lungs * Figure 17.2 Lungs Air-filled spaces surrounded by elastic tissue Enclosed in pleural cavity filled with small amount of fluid (decreases friction, lungs held against thoracic wall – stretched/partially inflated)
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Figure 17-2c
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Figure 17-3
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Figure 17-2d
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Anatomy - Airways Oral + nasal cavities Pharynx Larynx Trachea R + L Primary Bronchus Bronchi → Bronchioles Alveoli
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Figure 17-2a
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Figure 17-2e Changes that occur with branching: . Diameter gets smaller . Cartilage replaced by smooth muscle . Epithelium gets thinner: Stratified squamous or Pseudostratified ciliated Pseudostratified ciliated Simple cuboidal Simple squamous (EXCHANGE)
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At bronchiole level: No cilia No cartilage
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Cartilage vs. Smooth Muscle Cartilage Maintain open airway Can’t collapse Smooth muscle Changes in airway diameter Can collapse
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Cilia vs. No Cilia Cilia Move particles trapped in mucus away from exchange surfaces (alveoli) (mucus also contains antibodies for protection) Swallow, sneeze, cough No cilia Alveolar macrophages
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Figure 17-8
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Figure 17-2g
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Figure 17-4 * Increase in cross-sectional area with branching – increase surface area for exchange of gases
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Airway Modification Cold, dry air damages alveoli (moist surface) Warm Warmed by body’s heat Humidify Water from mucosal lining evaporates into incoming air Cleanse Cilia, antibodies in mucus, macrophages
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Alveoli Exchange – huge surface area! Cells:
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Respiratory System - Respiratory System Mechanics of...

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