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Lecture 6 - Vaccine Development

Lecture 6 - Vaccine Development - Vaccine Development...

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EVO Vaccine Development Strategies, Part 1 Edwin Oaks BIOL 420 Section 2 Vaccines George Mason University
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EVO Introduction There are two broad categories of vaccines, active and passive ACTIVE Vaccines Stimulates the immune system to produce specific antibodies or cellular immune responses or both which would protect against or eliminate a disease PASSIVE Vaccines A preparation of antibodies that neutralizes a pathogen and is administered before or around the time of known or potential exposure
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EVO Vaccine Technology Viral Bacterial Recombinant virus Recombinant viral vector Recombinant bacterial Recombinant bacterial vector Whole Pathogen Protein-based Peptide-based Polysaccharide- based Anti-idiotypic antibodies Live Vaccines Non-Living Vaccines DNA Vaccines “Naked” DNA Facilitated DNA Viral Delivery Bacterial Delivery Polyclonal antibodies Monoclonal antibodies Natural Human Recombinant Human Recombinant Humanized Antibodies Active Vaccines Passive Vaccines
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EVO Passive Vaccines Passive vaccines afford immediate immunological protection Passive vaccines are a preparation of antibodies with known protective effect against a pathogen These vaccines are efficacious if administered at or near the time of a known, suspected or potential exposure Examples include: 1. Post exposure prophylaxis for exposure to HAV (hep A virus) 2. Pre exposure prophylaxis for exposure to RSV, CMV in people being treated for cancer 3. Administration to pregnant mothers who are viremic for CMV In all cases, the antibodies bind to the viral pathogen and either neutralize the virus or bind to bacteria and mark the bacteria for phagocytosis Protection by passive immunization is short-lived (3 to 5 months)
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EVO Passive Vaccines Polyclonal Antibodies The earliest versions were made in horses that had been injected with inactivated bacterial toxins. Cow’s milk can also be used as a source. Diphtheria anti-toxin first produce in horses in 1891 Still available for treatment today Although the antisera was effective, there was substantial side effects. Serum sickness This approach is used only in emergencies when no other treatments are available. Human polyclonal immune globulins are available and consist of pooled human plasma from individuals with high antibody titers against a desired pathogen such as Hepatitis A. (plasma must be tested for HIV, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitits B antigen before use) Such individuals have achieved antibodies by either vaccination or recent natural infection. The preparations are fractionated with alcohol to enrich for antibodies and heat treated to destroy infectivity of human pathogens
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EVO Passive Vaccines Monoclonal Antibodies Monoclonal antibodies bind to a single epitope on an antigen.
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