{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Lecture 8 - Disease Elimination and Eradication by Vaccination

Lecture 8 - Disease Elimination and Eradication by Vaccination

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–11. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
EVO Disease Elimination and Eradication by Vaccination Edwin Oaks, Ph.D. George Mason University Fall 2008
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
EVO Containment : use vaccination to control disease incidence to an “acceptable” level Definition of an acceptable level of disease will vary from place to place In early stages of rubella vaccination programs in England, a 90% reduction of congenital rubella was acceptable Two decades later - a single child born with congenital rubella syndrome is unacceptable in England Containment, Elimination & Eradication
Image of page 2
EVO Containment, Elimination & Eradication Elimination : requires that there is no endemic transmission of the pathogen in the target population defined locally by World Health Organization (WHO) Sporadic cases due to “importation” may still occur Target population must exhibit high level of immunity Requires continued vaccination of population Requires significant economic investment Gets more expensive to find hard-to-reach cases Second doses may be required to maintain immunity Surveillance of disease must be maintained at high level Diseases targeted for “elimination” Measles - Americas, eastern Mediterranean, Europe Polio - Africa
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
EVO Containment, Elimination & Eradication Eradication : global destruction of the pathogen and allows cessation of all control measures. Results in huge cost savings for future generations Only possible if there is no animal reservoir Vaccine must prevent transmission Only example of eradication is smallpox Requires a global effort
Image of page 4
EVO POLIO Edwin Oaks, Ph.D. George Mason University Fall 2008
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
EVO INSERT POLIO VIDEO HERE “eradicating polio2.rm
Image of page 6
EVO Polio: Introduction History Descriptions of polio exist from 1500 - 1350 BC Referred to as “clubfoot” First modern clinical description 1813 (Monteggia) 1840 (Medin) Described characteristics of disease during a major epidemic in Scandinavia Severe and mild forms of paralytic illness Causative agent identified 1908 (Landsteiner) Reproduced disease in monkeys Viral disease capable of causing epidemics Showed that vaccination could prevent polio
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
EVO Polio: Introduction In U.S. efforts to fight polio - in part stimulated by Franklin D. Roosevelt’s case of paralytic polio in early 1920s. 1938 - National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP) Main focus was to raise funds to fight poliomyelitis Research and vaccine development March of Dimes - donations to fund research Three polio strains (1, 2 & 3) cultured and identified by Enders, Weller and Robbins Key to vaccine development - the causative agents are fully identified
Image of page 8
EVO FDR and Polio President Franklin Roosevelt declared a War on Polio during his administration, and the tremendous resources of postwar America were brought to bear on the problem of developing a vaccine.
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
EVO Pathogenesis and Epidemiology Causative agent Enterovirus of Picornaviridae family Genome is non-segmented, linear, ss (+) RNA
Image of page 10
Image of page 11
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern