Lecture 8 - Disease Elimination and Eradication by Vaccination

Lecture 8 - Disease Elimination and Eradication by Vaccination

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EVO Disease Elimination and Eradication by Vaccination Edwin Oaks, Ph.D. George Mason University Fall 2008
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EVO Containment : use vaccination to control disease incidence to an “acceptable” level Definition of an acceptable level of disease will vary from place to place In early stages of rubella vaccination programs in England, a 90% reduction of congenital rubella was acceptable Two decades later - a single child born with congenital rubella syndrome is unacceptable in England Containment, Elimination & Eradication
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EVO Elimination : requires that there is no endemic transmission of the pathogen in the target population defined locally by World Health Organization (WHO) Sporadic cases due to “importation” may still occur Target population must exhibit high level of immunity Requires continued vaccination of population Requires significant economic investment Gets more expensive to find hard-to-reach cases Second doses may be required to maintain immunity Surveillance of disease must be maintained at high level Diseases targeted for “elimination” Measles - Americas, eastern Mediterranean, Europe Polio - Africa
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EVO Eradication : global destruction of the pathogen and allows cessation of all control measures. Results in huge cost savings for future generations Only possible if there is no animal reservoir Vaccine must prevent transmission Only example of eradication is smallpox Requires a global effort
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EVO POLIO Edwin Oaks, Ph.D. George Mason University Fall 2008
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EVO INSERT POLIO VIDEO HERE “eradicating polio2.rm
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EVO Polio: Introduction History Descriptions of polio exist from 1500 - 1350 BC Referred to as “clubfoot” First modern clinical description 1813 (Monteggia) 1840 (Medin) Described characteristics of disease during a major epidemic in Scandinavia Severe and mild forms of paralytic illness Causative agent identified 1908 (Landsteiner) Reproduced disease in monkeys Viral disease capable of causing epidemics Showed that vaccination could prevent polio
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EVO Polio: Introduction In U.S. efforts to fight polio - in part stimulated by Franklin D. Roosevelt’s case of paralytic polio in early 1920s. 1938 - National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP) Main focus was to raise funds to fight poliomyelitis Research and vaccine development March of Dimes - donations to fund research Three polio strains (1, 2 & 3) cultured and identified by Enders, Weller and Robbins Key to vaccine development - the causative agents are fully identified
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EVO FDR and Polio President Franklin Roosevelt declared a War on Polio during his administration, and the tremendous resources of postwar America were brought to bear on the problem of developing a vaccine.
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EVO Pathogenesis and Epidemiology Causative agent Enterovirus of
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2009 for the course BIOL 420 taught by Professor Edwardsoaks during the Fall '08 term at George Mason.

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Lecture 8 - Disease Elimination and Eradication by Vaccination

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