Lecture 9 - Hepatitis B

Lecture 9 - Hepatitis B - Hepatitis B Edwin Oaks George...

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EVO Hepatitis B Edwin Oaks George Mason University Biol 420 section 2, Vaccines
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EVO HepB movie (alc-HepB)
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EVO Hepatitis Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. It is usually caused by viral infections, toxic agents or drugs but may be an autoimmune response. It is characterized by jaundice, abdominal pain, liver enlargement and sometimes fever. It may be mild, or can be acute leading to fulminant hepatitis. Others, usually viral or alcoholic are chronic, and can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer.
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EVO Hepatitis The different types of VIRAL hepatitis are: Hepatitis A (formerly called infectious hepatitis) Hepatitis B (serum hepatitis) Hepatitis C ( formerly called non-A, non-B hepatitis) Hepatitis D (delta hepatitis) Hepatitis E (a virus transmitted through the feces of an infected person) Hepatitis F Hepatitis G Hepatitis cryptogenic (Caused by a virus as yet unidentified). More hepatitis viruses are being discovered, but may be less common.
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EVO Comparison of Human Hepatitis Viruses Hepatitis A Virus Hepatitis B Virus Hepatitis C Virus Hepatitis D Virus Hepatitis E Virus Virus Class Picorna Hepadna Flaviviridae Satelite Calici-like Genome RNA Single- Stranded DNA Partially double- stranded RNA Single- Stranded RNA Single- Stranded RNA Single- Stranded Spread Enteric Parenteral Parenteral Parenteral Enteric Source of virus feces Blood or blood derived body fluids Blood or blood derived body fluids Blood or blood derived body fluids feces Incubation 15-45 d 40-120 d 15-90 d 25-75 d 20-80 d Chronic infection No Yes Yes Yes no
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EVO Acute Viral Hepatitis by Type 47% 34% 16% 3% Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis Non-ABC Source: CDC Sentinel Counties Study on Viral Hepatitis United States, 1982-1993
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EVO Hepatitis B History In 1965, Dr. Blumberg who was studying haemophilia, found an antibody in two patients which reacted against an antigen from an Australian Aborigine. Later the antigen was found in patients with serum type hepatitis and was initially designated "Australian Antigen". Subsequent study has shown the Australia Antigen to be the hepatitis B surface antigen. Blumberg was subsequently awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery. Initially there appeared to be three particles associated with hepatitis B infection: a large "complete" particle called the "Dane particle", a small circular 20nm particle and an oblong 40nm particle. Further research identified the Dane particle as the hepatitis B virion and the other two particles as excess surface protein. This former terminology is no longer used and the virus is referred to according to its structure.
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EVO Hepatitis B Virus In Hepadnaviridae family Genome of HBV is a mostly double-stranded, circular DNA HBV causes hepatitis in human and related viruses in this family cause hepatitis in ducks, ground squirrels and woodchucks.
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