Lecture 9 - Varicella

Lecture 9 - Varicella - VARICELLA Edwin Oaks, Ph.D. George...

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EVO VARICELLA Edwin Oaks, Ph.D. George Mason University BIOL 420 Vaccines
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EVO Show varicella movie (vari_statesurged).rm
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EVO Varicella-Zoster Virus - History Disease: Chickenpox (primary infection) Can be confused with smallpox Herpes zoster or shingles (recurrent infection) Clinical observations of the relationship between varicella and herpes zoster were made in 1888 by Von Bokay Varicella virus (VZV) was isolated from vesicular fluid of both chickenpox and zoster lesions in cell culture by Weller in 1954 The development of a live attenuated varicella vaccine , the Oka strain, occurred in Japan in the 1970s. Varicella vaccine (Varivax, Merck) was licensed on March 17, 1995, by the FDA and made available in the United States.
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EVO Varicella-Zoster Virus Varicella-Zoster Virus Virology Chickenpox is caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) VZV belongs to the herpesvirus family, a member of the alphaherpesvirinae The virion is round with a central double-stranded DNA genome core The virus is enveloped Unstable in environment Only 1 serotype is known Humans are the only reservoir, virus persists in sensory nerve ganglia
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EVO Varicella-zoster Virus QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
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EVO Chickenpox (Varicella) Virus enters body through respiratory tract Spreads to other organs via viremia Secondary viremia - infects skin Leads to characteristic rash Rash occurs 14 - 16 days after exposure First on head, most concentrated on trunk Pruritic vesicles, 1 - 4 mm diameter Usually a mild infection - no problems More severe in immunocompromised people Recovery = lifelong immunity
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EVO Clinical Description: Chickenpox (Varicella) Chickenpox has a characteristic itchy rash, which then forms blisters that dry and become scabs in 4-5 days. The rash may be the first sign of illness, sometimes coupled with fever and general malaise, which is usually more severe in adults. An infected person may have anywhere from only a few lesions to more than 500 lesions on his or her body during an attack (average 300-400).
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EVO Possible Pathogenesis of Varicella Infection of conjunctivae and/or mucosae of upper respiratory tract Viral replication in regional lymph nodes Primary viremia Viral replication in liver and spleen Secondary viremia Infection of skin and appearance of rash Day 0 Day 4-6 Day 14 Incubation Period
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EVO Varicella-Zoster Virus Chickenpox QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
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EVO Varicella-Zoster Epidemiology and Prevalence There are about four million cases of varicella, mostly in children, occurring annually
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Lecture 9 - Varicella - VARICELLA Edwin Oaks, Ph.D. George...

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