GenesMakeProteinsFall2008

GenesMakeProteinsFall2008 - September 30, 2008 Class will...

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September 30, 2008
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DNA cartoon:
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Proteins are central to life! -- The shape of a protein determines what it can do. -- Shape is determined by the sequence (order) of the amino acids in a protein. But, how do cells assemble proteins with the right amino acids in the proper order ? Genes are responsible. Where are genes found? On __________ -- in the nucleus of most cells. What about in prokaryotes? -- in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, a gene is one section of a chromosome . * Genes vary in length depending on the protein needed! Genes Make Proteins
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Chromosomes are strands of DNA wound around some proteins. The protein/DNA mix is called “ chromatin .” DNA is a double helix molecule made up of nucleotides with their base pairs joined by hydrogen bonding. Nucleotide is made up of a 1) sugar 2) PO 3) base . Nucleotide Base Pair Base pairs only join in certain combinations: A denine- T hymine G uanine- C ytosine Chromosomes of humans have about 3.2 billion base pairs. (2/13/01 news releases) How many chromosomes do humans have?
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So, chromosomes in eukaryotes are in pairs -- one set from each parent. For a species to survive, it must reproduce. In nature, the urge to reproduce is second only to urge to live!! We want to pass on our genes. (Do male animals have estrus cycles?) (Does this help explain certain sexual behaviors in animals?)
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Cells divide and duplicate their chromosomes by mitosis . Mitosis – duplication of nucleus, giving two identical sets of chromosomes.
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Meiosis – what is it? Division of sex cells, giving four haploid (half) gametes
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Meiosis – division of sex cells, giving four gametes . What do we call the male gametes produced by plants? ( Hint: They cause allergies in many people!) So, why aren’t half of our gametes exactly like the chromosomes of our mother? And the other half exactly like the chromosomes of our father? Answer? ** Crossing over ” during meiosis. HOW do genes pass on genetic traits? *** They tell our cells what proteins to make! How do they do this? Through a simple set of codes. DNA is just a long chain of codes.
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Each set of three base pairs (of a gene) codes for a specific amino acid in a protein chain. * This code is the same for all living organisms! ** That is why we can transfer genes between plants and animals. Here are the codes ( in blue below ) for five of the 20 amino acids. How does the coding get interpreted? Another nucleic acid does it – (RNA) !! ((Ignore letters in the dark part for now!))
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RNA – ribo nucleic acid – is a single strand of nucleotides. DNA tells RNA what to do, but… RNA is the one responsible for synthesizing proteins .
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2009 for the course HB 265 taught by Professor Jaemincha during the Spring '09 term at Michigan State University.

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GenesMakeProteinsFall2008 - September 30, 2008 Class will...

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