Lect 5 Gases - The Gaseous State...

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The Gaseous State Pressure-Volume-Temperature Relationships for Gaseous Molecules Gaseous Diffusion
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Automobile Air Bag Source: Courtesy of Chrysler Corporation.
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Gas Pressure Force exerted per unit area of surface by molecules in motion. P = Force/unit area
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Mercury Barometer Measurement of Gas Pressure
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Manometer
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Pressure Units Force exerted per unit area of surface by molecules in motion. 1 atmosphere = 14.7 psi 1 atmosphere = 760 mm Hg (torr) 1 atmosphere = 101,325 Pascals P = Force/unit area
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Boyle’s Law Compressibility of Gases The volume of a sample of gas, at a given temperature, varies inversely with the applied pressure. V α 1/P (constant moles and T) or i i f f V P V P × = ×
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Problem A sample of chlorine gas has a volume of 1.8 L at 1.0 atm. If the pressure increases to 4.0 atm (at constant temperature), what would be the new volume? i i f f V P V P using × = × ) atm 0 . 4 ( ) L 8 . 1 ( ) atm 0 . 1 ( P V P V f i i f × = × = L 45 . 0 V f =
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Charles’s Law The volume occupied by any sample of gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. i i f f T V T V =
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Linear Relationship of Gas Volume and Temperature at Constant Pressure
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Problem A sample of methane gas that has a volume of 3.8 L at 5.0°C is heated to 86.0°C at constant pressure. What is its new volume? ) K 278 ( ) K 359 )( L 8 . 3 ( T T V f i f i V = = × L 9 . 4 V f = i i f f T V T V using =
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Gay-Lussac’s Law The pressure exerted by a gas at constant volume is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. abs i i f f T P T P =
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Problem An aerosol can has a pressure of 1.4 atm at 25°C. What pressure would it have at 1200°C, assuming the volume remained constant? i i f f T P T P using = ) K 298 ( ) K 1473 )( atm 4 . 1 ( T T P f i f i P = = × atm 9 . 6 P f =
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Combined Gas Law In the event that all three parameters, P, V,and T, are changing, their combined relationship is defined as follows: f f f i i i T V P T V P =
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Problem A sample of carbon dioxide occupies 4.5 L at 30°C and 650 mm Hg. What volume would it occupy at 800 mm Hg
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Lect 5 Gases - The Gaseous State...

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