taxonomy - Taxonomy. (Your text makes a real mess of this....

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Taxonomy. (Your text makes a real mess of this. Use these notes as a guide through the book.) Study of classifying and naming organisms. Founded by Linnaeus. If done properly, is based on evolutionary relationships (at least to some extent). If based on ancestrally derived similarities, then often this is “automatic”. Kingdom -> Phylum -> Class -> Order -> Family -> Genus -> species These categories may be supplemented with “Super-” “Sub-” “Infra-” (below “sub-”) etc. A few other categories also exist: Domain (above Kingdom), Tribe (between family and genus). So how does it work? Complete classification of Humans: Kingdom: Animalia (grouped with all animals) Phylum: Chordata (grouped with mostly vertebrates) Class: Mammalia (grouped with Mammals - fur, milk) Order: Primates (grouped with Monkeys) Family: Hominidae (grouped with Humans (fossils incl.)) Genus: Homo (grouped with very similar humans (e.g. Homo erectus) species: sapiens (only humans) Note that fossil species are classified the same way. Another example [Fig. 26.3, p. 537] : - note that one can use this classification to make a phylogenetic tree (there's a lab exercise that will let you do this) [Fig. 26.4, p. 538] . Note that the only “objective” category is species: - although the species concept has problems, we can “test” to see if organisms belong to a particular species or not. - we have no such “test” for the other categories. Instead, we need to decide what goes where based on what we “think”, which isn't really “objective”.
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- much argument about the other categories. About writing scientific names: Always include Genus and species. Genus - always capitalized. species - always lower case (few very rare exceptions in botany) Both underlined or italicized . Favorite quiz/exam question. More on phylogenetic trees: Taxon - a group of animals (e.g., a family, a class, etc.) [Fig. 26.10, p. 542] Monophyletic - best. Each group includes ancestor and all immediate descendent species. E.g., cats.
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2009 for the course BIOL 303 taught by Professor Birchard during the Spring '08 term at George Mason.

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taxonomy - Taxonomy. (Your text makes a real mess of this....

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