Lect%202.%20Components%20of%20Matter-08

Lect%202.%20Components%20of%20Matter-08 - Matter (Chemical...

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Unformatted text preview: Matter (Chemical Properties) Chemical States of Matter Elements Substances that cannot be decomposed into simple substances by a chemical reaction Compounds Substances composed of two or more elements chemically combined Mixtures Matter that can be separated into two or more substances Chemical Symbols H Hydrogen C Carbon O Oxygen N Nitrogen Fe Iron Na Sodium K Potassium Hg Mercury Si Silicon Al Aluminum P Phosphorus Chemical Elements ~ 112 elements ~89 in "quantitative" amounts ~50 of biological or practical importance Earth's Crust/Atmosphere/Ocean Human body % % Oxygen O 49.1 Oxygen O 64.6 Silicon Si 26.1 Carbon C 18.0 Aluminum Al 7.5 Hydrogen H 10.0 Iron Fe 4.7 Nitrogen N 3.1 Calcium Ca 3.4 Calcium Ca 1.9 Sodium Na 2.6 Phosphorus P 1.1 Potassium K 2.4 Potassium K Magnesium Mg 1.9 Hydrogen H 0.9 Titanium Ti 0.6 ___ 99.8 Universe % Hydrogen H 91 Helium He 9 Earth's Core Iron, Nickel Liquid Elements Mercury, Bromine, Cesium Gaseous Elements Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Chlorine Compounds and Atomic Symbols CO Carbon monoxide CO 2 Carbon dioxide N 2 O 3 Dinitrogen trioxide CCl 4 Carbon tetrachloride UF 6 Uranium hexafluoride H 2 O Water NH 3 Ammonia Compounds are represented by atomic symbols with simplest ratio of atoms present indicated by subscripts The Nature of Matter Democritus (370 BC) Is matter continuously divisible? Atomos Lavoisier Law of Conservation of Mass Matter is not created nor destroyed but is converted from one form to another Law of Definite Proportions (constant composition) Pure compounds always contain the same elements in the same proportion by mass. Dalton Atomic Theory 1. All matter is comprised of tiny indivisible particles called atoms 2. All atoms of a given element are identical but are different from atoms of another element 3. Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine in definite fixed proportions Origins of Chemistry Greek Philosophy ( < 600 B.C.) Democritus (370 BC) Is matter continuously divisible? Atomos Indivisible The Nature of Matter? Egyptian Practical Arts Smelting of Metal Ores (gold/silver) Glassmaking Ceramics Dyes Explosives Brewing Herbal Medicines Middle Ages - The Alchemical Tradition Alchemy Astrology + Mysticism Philosophers Stone to change base metals into gold Elixir of Life to seek immortality Phlogiston Theory (Late 17 th Century) Undetectable phlogiston released when materials burn Metals increased in mass on burning ( negative phlogiston ?) Modern Chemistry Lavoisier 1789 Law of Conservation of Mass Dalton 1800 Atomic Theory Historical Landmarks on the Nature of Matter Law of Conservation of Mass - Lavoisier Matter can not be created or destroyed but can only be converted from one form to another Mercury oxide Mercury + Oxygen 20.0g 18.5g 1.5 g Law of Constant Composition Pure compounds always contain the same elements in the same proportion by mass....
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2009 for the course CHEM 211 taught by Professor Papanastasiou during the Spring '07 term at George Mason.

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Lect%202.%20Components%20of%20Matter-08 - Matter (Chemical...

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