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ANIMALS - Kingdom Animalia Animals very important to humans...

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Kingdom - Animalia Animals – very important to humans thoughout history General Characteristics: Multicelled (all of them) Aerobic Heterotrophic --ingest (eat or parasitize) other organisms Reproduce sexually usually (sometimes asexually) Motile at some point of their lives (motile vs. mobile?) Symmetry is found in most (not all) bodies Bilateral – identical on both sides (higher animals) Radial – symmetrical around a central axis (starfish) (Lowest forms (e.g., sponges) lack symmetry, but they are a small minority!) Fossil records date to 900 m ya Great diversity– more than 2,000,000 known species!! - Invertebrates – no backbones (> 1,950,000 species) - Vertebrates – have backbones (< 50,000 species) We’ll discuss them according to this classification diagram. Just like bacteria, fungi, and protistas -- some animals are “good” and some are “bad.” Why are “good” and “bad” in quotes? Who’s viewpoint? Environmental niche? But many do cause problems SPONGES There are ~ 11 phyla of animals. The earliest (placozoa) has only one existing species – a simple disk of cells with no mouth – and doesn’t bear discussing. **Sponges – no tissues , no organs , no symmetry !! Tube sponge – simple, has no symmetry Great for baths or cleaning!! CNDARIANS Cnidarians (pronounced “nee-dar -ian”) What are some familiar ones? “Flower of the sea” -looks like a plant, but has a flesh-eating mouth! Sea Anemone– with tentacles open around mouth. Another familiar cnidarian Coral reefs play an important ecological role. Many reefs are being destroyed – by tourists and by industry (e.g., off-shore oil exploration & pollution). ** Cnidarians – first animals with tissues FLATWORMS **Flatworms – first animals with organs ! Many cause problems for humans!! What is this example?
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Tapeworm!! Attaches inside our intestines and gets nutrients from us This is how it attaches itself (scolex). May be 4 m. long and live 10 yrs.!! Competes for nutrients. -Tapeworms and anemia? Vitamin B-12? How do we get these tapeworms??!! From undercooked beef , pork and fish . Tapeworm attaches itself in our small intestine. “Proglottids” (little pieces of tapeworm) and eggs are passed out into water or onto grass. Animals eat grass and get the eggs or proglottids. Larvae get into meat……….. Cycle starts all over -- Blood flukes are also flatworms Blood flukes cause shistosomiasis (schis-to-so-mi -a-sis) a disease affecting about 200,000,000 people/year mostly in developing countries Bloody diarrhea and bloody urine are symptoms Sometimes fatal; and very debilitating Looking at this picture, where does one get it? It’s transferred through standing water . Life cycle requires a certain kind of snail ! Larvae multiply inside the snail, then leave and are in the water ROUNDWORMS Roundworms (nematodes) – **most abundant animals on Earth (more species of insects, but not greater total numbers). Some are good – some bad!
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