Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 Thermodynamics: The First Law Energy,...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9 Thermodynamics: The First Law Energy, Enthalpy, Thermochemistry Work/Heat Reaction Enthalpies Calorimetry Hess s Law Energy Sources The reactivity properties of two cotton samples are demonstrated as they are lightly touched with a hot glass rod The Frst sample is ordinary cotton The second sample is a cotton ball that has been treated with sulfuric and nitric acid. In treating with H 2 SO 4 /HNO 3 some of the cellulose structure is altered chemically Reactive -NO 2 groups are incorporated into the cotton. The oxygen-nitrogen bonds in nitrocellulose (gun cotton) are highly reactive. Heat from the glass rod initiates the decomposition of the gun cotton. A large amount of heat is liberated as the gun cotton decomposes, an explosion results EXPLANATION A bombardier beetle defends itself by discharging a chemical spray. Enough heat is generated when reagents are mixed that the solution reaches its boiling point. (Fig 6.12 Chang 4th Ed.) EXAMPLE OF COMBUSTION REACTION Combustion or Mr. Gummy Bear glucose The Example: How much energy does it take to complete a marathon? The First Step How Much Energy Does It Take To Run A Mile? Table Of Calories Burned Activity Calories/hr sleeping 84 standing 168 shopping 294 walking (15 min/mi) 366 running (8 min/mi) 1100 Other Useful Data calories burned at rest per day:1800 calories burned with normal activities: 2350 data based on 175 lb male How Many Extra Calories Are Needed For The Marathon? 137 Cal/mi x 26.2 mi = 3,600 Cal How many bananas for the 26.2 miles? http://www.orst.edu/food-resource/images/FRUITVEG/BANANA/banana.jpg 3,600 Cal / 100 Cal/banana 36 bananas http://www.orst.edu/food-resource/images/FRUITVEG/BANANA/banana.jpg How many apples? http://www.lmg.com/twoharvests/merritts.htm 3,600 Cal / 80 Cal/apple 45 apples http://www.lmg.com/twoharvests/merritts.htm How many cups of yogurt? http://www.orst.edu/instruct/nfm433/p/stu/ap/info/yogurt.html 3,600 Cal / 200 Cal/yogurt 18 cups of yogurt http://www.orst.edu/instruct/nfm433/p/stu/ap/info/yogurt.html 3,600 Cal / 200 Cal/bowl 18 bowls with milk http://www.orst.edu/food-resource/images/GRAINS/wheat_cereal.jpg 12 six inch subway sandwiches adapted from: http://www.mcdonalds.com/a_food/ Three Big Macs & Large Fries adapted from: http://www.mcdonalds.com/a_food/ Thermodynamics The physical theory of heat and energy distribution in the universe. The two important laws of thermodynamics state: 1) the total energy of the universe is constant and energy can neither be made nor destroyed 2) the distribution of energy in the universe over time proceeds from a state of order to a state of disorder (entropy increase). Thermodynamics The system: Some portion of the universe that you wish to study The surroundings: The adjacent part of the universe outside the system Changes in a system are associated with the transfer of energy The internal energy of a system U is the sum of kinetic and potential energies of all particles. and potential energies of all particles....
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Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 Thermodynamics: The First Law Energy,...

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