chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Thermodynamics: The Second Law...

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Chapter 10 Thermodynamics: The Second Law Entropy Spontaneity of Reactions Gibbs Free Energy
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The Laws of Thermodynamics • First Law You can ʼ t get something for nothing . • Second Law You can ʼ t even break even.
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Thermodynamics The physical theory of heat and energy distribution in the universe. The two important laws of thermodynamics state: 1) the total energy of the universe is constant and energy can neither be made nor destroyed 2) the distribution of energy in the universe over time proceeds from a state of order to a state of disorder (entropy increase).
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Thermodynamic Systems A real or imaginary portion of universe whish has distinct boundaries is called system. OR A thermodynamic system is that part of universe which is under thermodynamic study.
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Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy is deFned as the "capacity for change" of a system. If the state of a system is changed, but the entropy is not changed, then the process is called reversible (able to be changed back to the original state without any more added energy).
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Second Law of Thermodynamics Most processes in nature are NOT reversible. It is said that the universe ʼ s entropy is always increasing - since entropy is the driving force behind equilibrium, this means that the universe is constantly moving toward a less dynamic state (i.e. more chaos).
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M.C. Escher “Waterfall” (1961) A machine that is able to provide useful work without input of external energy (e.g. heat) and without change of the physical or chemical status of its parts does not exist (or a machine that creates energy continuously does not exist). Δ
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2009 for the course CH 52365 taught by Professor Mcdevitt during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas.

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chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Thermodynamics: The Second Law...

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