Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Atoms Molecules and Ions KEY POINTS Early History of Chemistry Classical Experiments Modern Atomic Structure Molecules and

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Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules and Ions KEY POINTS Early History of Chemistry Classical Experiments Modern Atomic Structure Molecules and Ions Periodic Table Periodic Properties
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The Periodic Table 1 IA 18 VIIIA 1 1 H 1.00797 2 IIA 13 IIIA 14 IVA 15 VA 16 VIA 17 VIIA 2 He 4.0026 2 3 Li 6.939 4 Be 9.0122 5 B 10.811 6 C 12.0112 7 N 14.0067 8 O 15.9994 9 F 18.9984 10 Ne 20.179 3 11 Na 22.9898 12 Mg 24.305 3 IIIB 4 IVB 5 VB 6 VIB 7 VIIB 8 9 VIIIB 10 11 IB 12 IIB 13 Al 26.9815 14 Si 28.086 15 P 30.9738 16 S 32.064 17 Cl 35.453 18 Ar 39.948 4 19 K 39.102 20 Ca 40.08 21 Sc 44.956 22 Ti 47.90 23 V 50.942 24 Cr 51.996 25 Mn 54.9380 26 Fe 55.847 27 Co 58.9332 28 Ni 58.71 29 Cu 63.54 30 Zn 65.37 31 Ga 32 Ge 72.59 33 As 74.9216 34 Se 78.96 35 Br 79.909 36 Kr 83.80 5 37 Rb 85.47 38 Sr 87.62 39 Y 88.905 40 Zr 91.22 41 Nb 92.906 42 Mo 95.94 43 Tc [99] 44 Ru 101.07 45 Rh 102.905 46 Pd 106.4 47 Ag 107.870 48 Cd 112.40 49 In 114.82 50 Sn 118.69 51 Sb 121.75 52 Te 127.60 53 I 126.904 54 Xe 131.30 6 55 Cs 132.905 56 Ba 137.34 57 La 138.91 72 Hf 178.49 73 Ta 180.948 74 W 183.85 75 Re 186.2 76 Os 190.2 77 Ir 192.2 78 Pt 195.09 79 Au 196.967 80 Hg 200.59 81 Tl 204.37 82 Pb 207.19 83 Bi 208.980 84 Po [210] 85 At 86 Rn [222] 7 87 Fr [223] 88 Ra [226] 89 Ac [227] 104 Ku [260] 105 106 107 108 109 Rf
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Element 104 was reportedly frst detected in 1966 at the Joint Institute oF Nuclear Research at Dubna (U.S.S.R.). Researchers there bombarded 242Pu with accelerated 22Ne ions and separated the reaction products by gradient thermochromatography aFter conversion to chlorides by interaction with ZrCl4. The team identifed a spontaneous fssion activity contained within a volatile chloride portraying eka- haFnium properties. Although a halF-liFe was not accurately determined, later calculations indicated that the product was most likely 259RF:[1] The Russian scientists proposed the name Kurchatovium For the new element. In 1969 researchers at the University oF CaliFornia, Berkeley conclusively synthesized the element by bombarding a CF-249 target with carbon-12 ions and measured the alpha decay oF 257104, correlated with the daughter decay oF 253102. [2] The American scientists proposed the name RutherFordium For the new element. The American synthesis was independently confrmed in 1973 and secured the identifcation oF element 104 as the parent by the observation oF K X-rays in the elemental signature oF the daughter 253No. [3] In 1992 the IUPAC/IUPAP TransFermium Working Group (TWG) assessed the claims oF discovery and concluded that both teams provided contemporaneous evidence to the synthesis oF element 104 and that credit should be shared between the two groups.[1] The American group wrote a scathing response to the fndings oF the TWG, stating that they had given too much emphasis on the results From the Dubna group. In particular they pointed out that the Russian group had altered the details oF their claims several times over a period oF 20 years, a Fact which the Russian team do not deny. They also stressed that the TWG had given too much credence to the
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2009 for the course CH 52365 taught by Professor Mcdevitt during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Atoms Molecules and Ions KEY POINTS Early History of Chemistry Classical Experiments Modern Atomic Structure Molecules and

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