chapter 5 - Chapter 5: Gases Properties of Gases Gas Laws...

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Chapter 5: Gases • Properties of Gases • Gas Laws (pressure, volume, temperature, moles) • Gases in Chemical Reactions • The Kinetic Model of Gases
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Atmospheric Composition • Atmosphere is a Mixture of Gases – Permanent Gases • Nitrogen • Oxygen • Argon
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Splitting of Water O2 H2 + -
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Avogadro ʼ s Law • Gay-Lussac 1808 –Small volumes of gases react in the ratio of small whole numbers. • Avogadro 1811 –Equal volumes of gases have equal numbers of molecules and –Gas molecules may break up when they react.
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Formation and Splitting of Water
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Effects of Pressure • A small amount of H 2 O (l) is heated in the can. It can expand to 1200 times its original volume when heated to the gas phase at 25 o C and 1 atm.
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Effects of Pressure • When the can is sealed and cooled the water molecules slow down, condense to liquid, and exert less pressure. The pressure of the atmosphere pushes in on the can.
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Pressure = Force/Area
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Standard Atmospheric Pressure 1.00 atm 760 mm Hg, 760 torr 101.325 kPa 1.01325 bar 1013.25 mbar A barometer a pressure measurement device
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Pressure • One physical property of a gas is that it exerts pressure on it ʼ s surroundings. • Pressure = Force (N) 1Pa = 1N area (m 2 ) m 2 • Atmospheric pressure is the pressure exerted by the earth ʼ s atmosphere or the column of air above an object.
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SI base units Base quantity Name Symbol length meter m mass kilogram kg time second s electric current ampere A temperature kelvin K amount of substance mole mol luminous intensity candela cd
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• Where is the atmospheric pressure greater; on top of Mt. Everest or in Death Valley?
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• At higher altitudes, atmospheric pressures are lower and the boiling point of water is less than 100 °C (E.g. Denver, CO: 630mm Hg, 95
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chapter 5 - Chapter 5: Gases Properties of Gases Gas Laws...

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