chapter 12 - Chapter 12: Quantum Mechanics and Atomic...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 12: Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory KEY POINTS Electromagnetic Radiation Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals Polyelectron Atoms Aufbau Principle and Periodic Table Electron Configurations Can you “see” electrons or atoms? Fe on Cu Scanning Tunneling Microscope With the STM we can “see” atoms and molecules What is Scanning Tunneling Microscopy? Allows for the imaging of the surfaces of metals and semiconductors at the atomic level. Developed by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory in 1982. The two shared half of the 1986 Nobel Prize in physics for developing STM. Binnig Rohrer STM has fathered a host of new atomic probe techniques: Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy, Scanning Acoustic Microscopy, etc. Title : The Making of the Circular Corral Media : Iron on Copper (111) Various stages during the construction of the circular corral. [Crommie, Lutz & Eigler] Title : Rectangular Corral Media : Iron on Copper (111) Similar to the circular quantum corral. [Crommie, Lutz & Eigler] Introduction to Electronic Structure of Atoms • Elements in the same group exhibit similar chemical and physical properties. – Alkali Metals: • soft • very reactive • metal – Noble Gases • gases • inert (unreactive) • Why??? • When atoms react, their electrons interact. • The properties of elements depend on their electronic structure. – the arrangement of electrons in an atom • number of electrons • distribution of electrons around the atom • energies of the electrons Electronic Structure of Atoms • Understanding the nature of electrons and the electronic structure of atoms is the key to understanding the reactivity of elements and the reactions they undergo. • Much of our knowledge of the electronic structure of atoms came from studying the ways elements absorb or emit light. Electronic Structure of Atoms Atomic Spectra if we heat up atoms, they emit light … but only at distinct frequencies photographic flm sample oF atoms heat source ʻ picture ʼ only has narrow bands of color Atomic Spectra if we heat up atoms, they emit light … but only at distinct frequencies Real examples : λ ( Å) each atom gives a characteristic spectrum, with peaks at well- deFned wavelengths Light Energy is Harvested and Converted to Electrical Energy Light is Harvested by Plants to Convert Solar to Chemical Energy The Wave Nature of Light • Light is a type of electromagnetic radiation – a form of energy with both electrical and magnetic components Wavelength ( λ ) the distance between successive peaks Frequency ( υ ) the number of complete wavelengths that pass a given point in 1 sec The Wave Nature of Light The electromagnetic spectrum: Quantized Energy and Photons • Classical physics (mechanics) suggests that both electromagnetic radiation and matter can have any energy: A car rolling down a hill can have any potential energy (energy of position) depending on its position on the hill. on the hill....
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2009 for the course CH 52365 taught by Professor Mcdevitt during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas.

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chapter 12 - Chapter 12: Quantum Mechanics and Atomic...

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