chapter 14 - CHAPTER 14 Molecular Structure & Covalent...

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CHAPTER 14 Molecular Structure & Covalent Bonding Theories (1) Valence Bond (VB) Theory: Molecular Shapes and Bonding (2) Molecular Orbital (MO) Theory Polar Molecules: The Influence of Molecular Shape
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By the end of Chapter 14, you should be able to: • Predict shapes of molecules • Assign hybridizations of orbitals on central atoms • Construct double and triple bonds • Evaluate polarities of molecule
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Two Simple Theories of Covalent Bonding Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory – Commonly designated as VSEPR • R. J. Gillespie in the 1950 ʼ s Valence Bond Theory – Involves the use of hybridized atomic orbitals • L. Pauling in the 1930 ʼ ʼ s
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We can describe hybridization as the mathematical combination of the waves that represent the orbitals of the atoms Valence Bond (VB) Theory
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Valence Bond (VB) Theory
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How can Be share its electrons in covalent bonds? Be 2s 2 2s 2p Valence bond theory Both electrons are paired. They can ʼ t form bonds ! BeCl 2
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We can describe hybridization as the mathematical combination of the waves that represent the orbitals of the atoms Valence Bond (VB) Theory
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SP HYBRID ORBITALS One s orbital combines with one p orbital to create two sp hybrid orbitals s + + s p + - 2 ea sp + -
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The two sp hybrid orbitals are positioned at 180 degrees from one another SP HYBRID ORBITALS + + - -
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One s orbital combines with three p orbital to create four sp3 hybrid orbitals p p p SP3 HYBRID ORBITALS + p + - p + - p + - sp3 + - 4 x s
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The four sp3 hybrid orbitals point at the corners of a tetrahedron
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The four sp3 hybrid orbitals can combine with atomic orbitals from other atoms to form four bonds. Methane is one such example of this type of bonding. SP3 HYBRID ORBITALS C H H H
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+ One s orbital combines with two p orbital to create three sp2 hybrid orbitals SP2 HYBRID ORBITALS + s p + - p + - 3 x sp2 - +
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The three sp2 hybrid orbitals lie in a plane, at 120 degree angles from one another SP2 HYBRID ORBITALS 120 o 120 o 120 o
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The three sp2 hybrid orbitals lie in a plane, at 120 degree angles from one another SP2 HYBRID ORBITALS 120 o 120 o 120 o
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The three sp2 hybrid orbitals lie in a plane and point at 120 degrees angles from one another SP2 HYBRID ORBITALS sp2 pz sp2 sp2
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BF 3 electronic & molecular geometry are same sp 2 hybridization
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It is as easy as 1, 2, 3. .. Count the number of groups attached to the central atom What type of hybrid orbitals are being used ??????
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COUNT THE GROUPS 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 = 1+3 3 = 1+2 2 = 1+1
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Valence Bond (VB) Theory Regions of High Electron Density Electronic arrangement Hybridization 2 Linear sp 3 Trigonal planar sp 2 4 Tetrahedral sp 3 5 Trigonal bipyramidal sp 3 d 6 Octahedral sp 3 d 2 The HED immediately defnes the electronic arrangement and hybridization!
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Polar Molecules: The Infuence oF Molecular shape
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chapter 14 - CHAPTER 14 Molecular Structure & Covalent...

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