chapter 16 - Chapter 16: Intermolecular Forces Impact of...

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Chapter 16: Intermolecular Forces Impact of Intermolecular Forces on Chemical Properties Liquids Solids
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the three states of matter Solid Liquid Gas
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Converting a gas into a liquid or solid requires the molecules to get closer to each other: – Cool or compress; allow intermolecular forces to take effect. Converting a solid into a liquid or gas requires the molecules to move further apart: – Heat or reduce pressure; break intermolecular attractions. The forces holding solids and liquids together are called intermolecular forces. Important note: intermolecular forces are still much weaker than bonds (<10% max) Liquids/Solids vs. Gases
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Phases of elements at STP Only 11 elements are gases Why? Intermolecular forces : forces of attraction between molecules which result in liquids and solids
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Intermolecular Forces Intra = within Inter = between
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Forces Intra-molecular Covalent bonds: 400 kJ/mole Ionic bonds: 250 kJ/mole Inter-molecular Ion-dipole: 15 kJ/mole Dipole-dipole: 2 kJ/mole Dipole-induced dipole: 2 kJ/mole London: 2 kJ/mole Hydrogen bonding: 10 kJ/mole Big impact on chemical properties: melting points, boiling points, viscosity, etc. Intra = within Inter = between
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Dipole-Dipole Forces Attractive forces between polar molecules Orientation of Polar Molecules in a Solid Intermolecular Forces
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• One instantaneous dipole can induce another instantaneous dipole in an adjacent molecule (or atom). • The forces between instantaneous dipoles are called London dispersion forces . London Dispersion Forces
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Intermolecular force. An attraction or repulsion between molecules. Intermolecular forces are much weaker than chemical bonds. Hydrogen bonds, dipole- dipole interactions, and London forces are examples of intermolecular forces. London force. A dispersion force. An intermolecular attractive force that arises from a cooperative oscillation of electron clouds on a collection of molecules at close range. Intermolecular Forces
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Dipolar Forces Occur when one polar molecule encounters another polar molecule. The positive ends will be attracted to the negative ends. Dipolar forces are typically stronger than dispersion forces. Dipolar forces increase with an increase in the polarity of the molecule. NOTE: Ion-dipole forces stronger than dipolar forces.
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• Special case of dipole-dipole forces. • By experiments: boiling points of compounds with H-F, H-O, and H-N bonds are abnormally high.
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chapter 16 - Chapter 16: Intermolecular Forces Impact of...

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