BIO FINAL REVIEW

BIO FINAL REVIEW - 1. People can alter the habitat...

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1. People can alter the habitat conditions of freshwater systems by changing the hydraulic (water) cycle. A. Give one example from class where humans changed the hydraulic cycle in a freshwater system. B. How did this change the physical conditions of the affected ecosystem? C. How did changing the hydraulic cycle affect species that are part of the ecosystem? D. Give one example of how changing the hydraulic cycle can negatively affect humans? One example where humans changed the hydraulic cycle in a freshwater system is in Mono Lake. The water there was drained and directed to Los Angeles. One very important physical condition of the lake that was affected was that the water level sunk dramatically. Also, the diversion of this water affected the species in this lake terribly because there are a lot of endemic species in the lake that are now confined to a much smaller space with a higher salt content that makes production in the lake fall because many of the endemic species cannot survive in water that salty. Changing the hydraulic cycle can also have a negative effect on humans. One example of this is, now that humans are trying to restore natural biology to the areas where they changed the hydraulic cycle, they are finding that it is costing about 8 billion dollars to fix. Another consequence is that fish are disappearing. 3. Phosphorus is often a limiting nutrient for freshwater plant growth. What are two major sources of phosphorus into freshwater systems? What are three human activities that can cause too much phosphorus to be released into the environment? Two major sources of phosphorus into freshwater systems are soils such as rock erosion and disturbances such as the exposition of new soil/rock. Three human activities that can cause too much phosphorus to be released into the environment are Lawn care (fertilizers), detergents for washing clothes and dishes, and, agriculture (animal wastes and fertilizers). 5. Define a shifting baseline. A shifting baseline means that our standard for what a system or population should look like (its size, composition, functioning) can change through time, especially when change happens over longer periods of time or is more gradual. Without knowing the full history of a system, we had an altered view of what a system should look like, or what is needed for its natural state. 7. Give an example that we talked about in class where knowing about the concept of shifting baselines is particularly important for assessing an ecological problem and finding the correct solution to that problem. Knowing about the concept of shifting baselines is particularly important for assessing ecological problems and solving them is extremely important because knowing about the indirect effects from climate change such as warmer sea water temperatures, disease, increase in frequency in ENSO, lee
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upwelling and the increase in large storms can help us to prevent some of these things and keep the environment in its “natural” state. 9. Define species extinction, and give an example of a species that has gone
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2009 for the course BIO 113 taught by Professor Padilla during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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BIO FINAL REVIEW - 1. People can alter the habitat...

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