genetics terms and definitions 1

genetics terms and definitions 1 - 1. 3 prime end: end of...

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1. 3 prime end: end of the DNA chain where an –OH group is attached. 2. 5 methylcytosine: a methylated form of cytosine in which a methyl group is attached to carbon 5, altering its structure without altering its base-pairing properties. 3. 5 prime end: end of the DNA chain where a Phosphate is attached. 4. A DNA: right-handed helical structure of DNA that exists when little water is present 5. Addition rule: the probability of any two or more mutually exclusive events occurring is calculated by adding the probabilities of the individual events. (and) 6. Adenine: (A) purine base in DNA and RNA 7. Allele: one of two or more alternate forms of a gene 8. Antiparallel: refers to a characteristic of the DNA double helix in which the two polynucleotide strands run in opposite directions. 9. Autoradiography: method for visualizing DNA or RNA molecules labeled with radioactive substances. A piece of X-ray film is placed on top of a slide containing DNA labeled with radioactive chemicals. Radiation from the labeled DNA exposes the film, providing a picture of the labeled molecules. 10. B DNA: right-handed helical structure of DNA that exists when water is abundant. The secondary structure described by Watson and Crick and probably the most common DNA structure in cells. 11. BAC: bacterial artificial chromosome. Cloning vector used in bacteria which is capable of carrying DNA fragments as large as 500kb. 12. Backcross: cross between an F1 individual and one of the parental (P) genotypes. 13. Bacterial colony: clump of genetically identical bacteria derived from a single bacterial cell which undergoes repeated rounds of division. 14. Biotechnology: use of biological processes, particularly molecular genetics and recombinant DNA technology, to produce products of commercial value. 15. Blending Inheritance: an early theory of heredity which proposed that offspring are a blend of parental traits. Was later disproved. (tall parent+short parent=medium offspring. all offspring pass along medium genes not tall or short genes) 16. cDNA library: collection of bacterial colonies or phage colonies containing DNA fragments that have been produced by reverse transcriptase of cellular mRNA. 17. Cell Theory: states that all life is composed of cells, that cells arise only from other cells, and that the cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in living organisms.
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18. Central Dogma: concept that genetic information passes from DNA to RNA to protein in a one-way information pathway. 19. Chargaffs rules: rules developed by Erwin Chargaff and his colleagues concerning the ratios of bases in DNA. (T=A, G=C) 20. Chromosome theory of heredity: states that genes are located on chromosomes. 21.
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2009 for the course ZOL 341 taught by Professor Dworkin during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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genetics terms and definitions 1 - 1. 3 prime end: end of...

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