genetics terms and definitions 4

genetics terms and definitions 4 - 1. -10 consensus...

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1. -10 consensus sequence: (pribnow box) consensus sequence (TATAAT) found in most bacterial promoters approximately 10 bp upstream of the transcription start site. 2. 3 prime splice site: the 3` end of an intron where cleavage takes place in RNA splicing 3. 3 prime untranslated region: sequence of nucleotides at the 3` end of mRNA; does not encode the amino acids of a protein but affects both the stability of the mRNA and its translation. 4. 30S initiation complex: initial complex formed in the initiation of translation in bacterial cells; consists of the small subunit of the ribosome, mRNA, initiator tRNA charged with fMet, GTP, and initiation factors 1, 2, and 3. 5. -35 consensus sequence: consensus sequence (TTGACA) found in many bacterial promoters approximately 35 bp upstream of the transcription start site. 6. 5 prime cap: modified 5` end of eukaryotic mRNA, consisting of an extra nucleotide (methylated) and methylation of the 2` position of the ribose sugar in one or more subsequent nucleotides; plays a role in the binding of the ribose to mRNA and affects mRNA stability and the removal of introns. 7. 5 prime splice site: the 5` end of an intron where cleavage takes place in RNA splicing. 8. 5 prime untranslated region: sequence of nucleotides at the 5` end of mRNA; does not encode the amino acids of a protein. 9. 70S initiation complex: final complex formed in the initiation of translation in bacterial cells; consists of the small and large subunits of the ribosome, mRNA, and initiator tRNA charged with fMet. 10. Adaptive mutation: process by which a specific environment induces mutations that enable organisms to adapt to the environment. 11. Allosteric protein: protein that changes its conformation on binding with another molecule. 12. Alternative processing pathway: one of several pathways by which a single pre-mRNA can be processed in different ways to produce alternative types of mRNA 13. Alternative splicing: process by which a single pre-mRNA can be spliced in more than one way to produce different types of mRNA 14. Ames test: test in which special strains of bacteria are used to evaluate the potential of chemicals to cause cancer. 15. Amino acid: repeating unit of protein; consists of an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a variable R group. 16. Aminoacyl site: (A site) one of three sites in a ribosome occupied by a tRNA in translation. All charged tRNAs (with the exception of the initiator tRNA) first enter the A site in translation. 17. Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase: enzyme that attaches an amino acid to a tRNA. Each aminoacyl tRNA synthetase is specific for a particular amino acid. 18. Anticodon: sequence of three nucleotides in tRNA that pairs with the corresponding codon in mRNA in translation 19. Antisense RNA: small RNA molecule that base pairs with a complementary DNA or RNA sequence and affects its functioning. 20.
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2009 for the course ZOL 341 taught by Professor Dworkin during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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genetics terms and definitions 4 - 1. -10 consensus...

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