SOC_Terms - Sociology is a branch of the social sciences....

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Sociology is a branch of the social sciences . It is an effort to use systematic methods of empirical investigation [1] and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about human social activity. Its subject matter ranges from the micro level of face-to-face interaction to the macro level of whole political bodies, economic regimes, or even world systems . Historically, sociology has paid special emphasis to modern, industrialized societies. Objectification is the process by which abstract concepts are treated as if they were concrete things or physical objects. In this sense the term is synonym to reification . Objectification also commonly refers to the regarding of a person as 'a thing'. For example, sexual objectification refers to the regarding of a person as merely a non-human object, or tool, for sex. Philosopher Martha Nussbaum [1] has argued that the objectification of something can be determined by the presence of the following factors: Instrumentality - treating as a tool for one's own purposes; 1. Denial of autonomy - treating as if lacking in agency or self-determination ; 2. Inertness - treating as if lacking in agency ; 3. Ownership - treating as if owned by another; 4. Fungibility - treating as if interchangeable; 5. Violability - treating as if permissible to smash; and the denial of subjectivity - treating as if there is no need to show concern for the 'object's' feelings and experiences. In sciences such as psychology and sociology , internalization is the process of acceptance of a set of norms established by people or groups which are influential to the individual. The process starts with learning what the norms are, and then the individual goes through a process of understanding why they are of value or why they make sense, until finally they accept the norm as their own viewpoint. Role models can also help. If someone we respect is seen to endorse a particular set of norms, we are more likely to internalize those norms. This is called identification . In Freudian psychology, internalization is one of the concepts of the psychological process of introjection , a psychological defense mechanism .
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In developmental psychology , internalization is the process through which social interactions become part of the child ’s mental functions, i.e., after having experienced an interaction with another person the child subsequently experiences the same interaction within him/herself and makes it a part of his/her understanding of interactions with others in general. As the child experiences similar interactions over and over again, s/he slowly learns to understand and think about them on higher, abstract levels. Lev Vygotsky suggested that mental functions, such as concepts, language, voluntary attention and memory are cultural tools acquired through social interactions In classical philosophy , dialectic ( Greek : διαλεκτική) is a form of reasoning based on the exchange of arguments and counter-arguments, advocating propositions
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SOC_Terms - Sociology is a branch of the social sciences....

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