Vertebrate Zoology Notes Part the First

Vertebrate Zoology Notes Part the First - Vertebrate...

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Vertebrate Zoology Notes Part the First Phylum Chordata Four Traits: 1. Notochord 2. Ventral, tubular nerve cord 3. Post anal tail. 4. Pharyngeal gill slits. Subphylums Hemichordata - Really a phylum. Have an analogous notochord structure. Urochordata - Sea Squirts/Tunicates. Traits only present in larvae. Cephalochordates - Lancelets. Have all four characteristics as adults. Subphylum Vertebrata- Spinal column composed of cartilaginous or bony vertebrate and cranium/brain case. Systematics Taxonomy - theory and practice of classifying organisms. Systematics – scientific study of the kinds and diversity of organisms and any and all relations between them. Never classify the individual, only indentify. Old style of systematics was clerical duty: -indentify -development of keys -collections -description of new species -properly name and label. New style of systematics includes the preceding plus: - contributing to understanding -behavior -genetics -molecular biology Roles of systematics -describe existing diversity and patterns of diversity. -reconstruct phylogenies -reveals evolutionary phenomenon -gather information in the field -supply classification for other fields -conceptual contributions. History of Taxonomy -384-322 BC, Aristotle is the father of biological classification, writing Historia Animalian , using the classic western elements to classify organisms such as heat and moist, cold and dry. Did not group aquatic and terrestrial mammals together. -After Aristotle but before Linnaeus, classification was downward, starting with large group and breaking it into smaller ones. -1707-1778, Carolus Linnaeus is the father of taxonomy, writing the Systema Naturae . Was an essentialist, believing that god had a perfect form in mind (man) and deviation from it was bad.
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-Binomial Nomenclature is used when naming a species. Two words, Genus and Species, comprise the specific epitaph. The first word is a Greek or Latin noun and is always capitalized. The second word is Latin or Greek adjective that agrees with the gender of the Genus name. It is always started with a lowercase. Both words are either underlined or italicized. -Hierarchal System of Classification is a series of groups with ever increasing inclusiveness. Concept of Species -No universal agreement for what it is. The Biological Species Concept states that species is a group of interbreeding, natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups. A reproductive community is a protected gene pool and species is the only objectively classified field. The BSC works well for non-dimensional species. Some problems with this concept is when information is lacking for a species, such in the fossil record, or a species that is uniparental or asexual (~1000 species of fish, amphibians and reptiles can pull this off). -
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Vertebrate Zoology Notes Part the First - Vertebrate...

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