Lecture Set 3--Solutions

Lecture Set - Components of Solution Solvent major component Solute minor component Saturation point where no more solute can be dissolved in a

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Solvent – major component Solute – minor component • Saturation – point where no more solute can be dissolved in a solvent Components of Solution Characterizing Solubility • Liquid – solid solns : Molar solubility S = # moles solute/volume of solution Only for saturated solns • Liquid – gas solns : Henry’s Law S = k H x P P is the partial pressure above the soln k H is Henry’s law constant k H in Water at 20 ˚ C Gas k H (mol•L -1 •atm -1 ) He 3.7x10 -4
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Dissolution Cycle Dissolution Cycle Like Dissolves Like Goal: Lowest energy(most stable) * Polar solute with polar solvent (salts, sugar in water) Lower E * Nonpolar solute with nonpolar solvent (CCl 4 in benzene, flavors in oils) * Polar with nonpolar Higher E (oil with water) Lowest energy: solute-solvent interactions are similar to solvent-solvent interactions
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Surfactants - Polar and Nonpolar (Micelle in water) Surfactants - Polar and Nonpolar (Reversed micelle in oil) Protein Aqueous Solutions of Ionic Compounds • Heats of soln (kJ/mol): *AgNO 3 = +22.6 *N aC l = + 3 .9 *L i 2 SO 4 = -29.8 • Some salts more soluble at high T, some less. • Gases less soluble at high T.
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Why does anything dissolve? Δ H soln not only factor * Δ H soln >0 for NaCl, LiF but they dissolve Why? Overall disorder (system and surroundings) increases * Energy and matter tend toward disorder Entropy Disorder • Dispersion of Energy (Enthalpy) Δ H <0 (exothermic) rxn releases energy to surroundings, disorder increases • Dispersion of Matter (Entropy) Δ
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2009 for the course CHEM 2B taught by Professor Clemens during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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Lecture Set - Components of Solution Solvent major component Solute minor component Saturation point where no more solute can be dissolved in a

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