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Lecture Set 3--Solutions

Lecture Set 3--Solutions - Components of Solution Solvent...

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Solvent – major component Solute – minor component • Saturation – point where no more solute can be dissolved in a solvent Components of Solution Characterizing Solubility Liquid – solid solns : Molar solubility S = # moles solute/volume of solution Only for saturated solns Liquid – gas solns : Henry’s Law S = k H x P P is the partial pressure above the soln k H is Henry’s law constant k H in Water at 20 ˚ C Gas k H (mol•L -1 •atm -1 ) He 3.7x10 -4
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Dissolution Cycle Dissolution Cycle Like Dissolves Like Goal: Lowest energy(most stable) * Polar solute with polar solvent (salts, sugar in water) Lower E * Nonpolar solute with nonpolar solvent (CCl 4 in benzene, flavors in oils) * Polar with nonpolar Higher E (oil with water) Lowest energy: solute-solvent interactions are similar to solvent-solvent interactions
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