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COMD ch 9 - COMD 2050 Chapter Nine Syntax and Generative...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style COMD 2050 Chapter Nine: Syntax and Generative Grammar .
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Review Constituent analysis – brackets The boy The thief stole a wallet.
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Review Constituent analysis – brackets The boy The thief stole a wallet. [ [ [ The ] [thief ] ] -noun phrase A N [ [ stole ] [ [ a ] [ wallet ] ] ] ] -verb phrase V A N -Sentence
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Syntax It’s the branch of linguistics that describes and explains the arrangement of ordering words within phrases and sentences. Syntax: structure and ordering of components within a sentence.
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Syntax Noam Chomsky: Syntactic Structures His theory was originally called transformational-generative grammar and is now called minimalism.
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Generative grammar A formal set of grammatical rules that model the subconscious procedures that allow native speakers of any language to generate grammatical sentences.
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Generative grammar Universal grammar: the system of principles, conditions, and rules that are elements or properties of all human languages.
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Generative grammar A rule of generative grammar for the structure of noun phrases in English might be: NPs Art (Adj) N The arrow means “consists of.” Rules like this specify what larger constituents (NP) consist of & are called phrase structure rules .
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Generative grammar NP Art (Adj) N = phrase structure rule You can plug in words that belong to the grammatical categories article, adjective, and noun to generate an infinite number of English noun phrases.
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Properties of grammar The type of grammar that linguists like Chomsky are trying to create is one that generates all the well-formed sentences of the language but none of the ill-formed sentences. This is the “all and only” criterion rule – grammar must generate all the grammatical sentences and only the grammatical sentences.
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Properties of grammar Another important characteristic of a generative grammar is that it must have a finite (limited) number of rules and still be able to generate an infinite number of well- formed sentences.
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Properties of grammar Generative grammars also need their rules to be recursive – you have to be able to apply them more than once in generating a given sentence or a syntactic structure.
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Properties of grammar Given a sentence (S) NP + VP, NP  Art + N VP  V + PP How many different sentences could you generate?
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Properties of grammar “Paul thought that Liz was at the store.” Paul thought _______ PN + V Liz was at the store PN + VP
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Clauses Adverbial clause After they reread the chapter , the students felt much less perplexed. Relative clause The instructor, who loved syntax , tried to help the students understand. Complementizer clause The students thought that the instructor was a little off her rocker.
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Clauses Adverbial clause has an adverb like function He kept quiet in order to avoid trouble .
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