NewsAndViews - CELL BIOLOGY Two Teams One Goal Nick...

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CELL BIOLOGY Two Teams, One Goal Nick Benzschawel With its role in receptor desensitization and internalization already known, β -arrestins are now thought to mediate further intracellular signaling upon receptor internalization. What is more, this signaling is thought to be independent of receptor-G-protein interactions. The process of signal transduction allows a cell to respond to its environment and transfer the message encoded in the signal to the inside of the cell. The signal often causes a change in gene transcription allowing the cell to respond. Regardless of the nature of the signal, the mechanism by which the signal is transduced is more of less universal. A signaling molecule binds the receptor and causes a change in the receptor’s conformation allowing it to activate cytosolic proteins that carry the signal to its intended location where a response is then initiated. Commonly, receptors are then tagged with phosphate groups that aid in shutting off the signal. The phosphorylation allows the receptor to recruit additional cytosolic proteins that desensitize and internalize the receptor. It is here that a significant branch point is reached. A receptor can be either re- sensitized and sent back to the membrane or degraded in a lysosome, both of which are mediated by the β -arrestins (a small family of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)- binding proteins), and prevent prolonged signaling due to over stimulation of the receptor. Interestingly, it has been shown that once internalized, receptors can also activate additional signaling pathways. Three papers in this article 1,2,3 show that upon internalization, receptors complexed with β -arrestins often activate signaling proteins involved in the MAP kinase signaling pathway, namely the extracellular signal regulated
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2009 for the course BIOCHEM 630 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Wisconsin.

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NewsAndViews - CELL BIOLOGY Two Teams One Goal Nick...

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