Unformatted text preview: Geology 1001
Chapter 3 Earth Materials: Minerals and Rocks 1 Rock: Naturally-occurring, solid Naturallyaggregate of minerals, or in some minerals, cases, non-mineralized solid matter. non- Granite Minerals: 5-part definition 5Minerals are: Naturally-Occurring: not synthetic or man-made. Naturallyman- Minerals: 5-part definition 5Minerals are: Solid: solid state of matter Crystalline: atoms are arranged in an orderly 3-dimenional pattern. 3- Atom 2 Minerals: 5-part definition 5Minerals are: Generally Inorganic Minerals: 5-part definition 5Minerals are: Formed with a specific chemical composition Na (sodium) Cl (Chlorine) NaCl (Halite) Granite Quartz Minerals: The building blocks of rocks 3 4 5 Sub-atomic particles: Building blocks of atoms SubCarbon atom Electron cloud Nucleus Sub-atomic particles: Building blocks of atoms SubCarbon atom:
6 electrons (- charge) (- A nucleus with 6 protons (+ charge) and 6 neutrons (no charge) Periodic Table of the Elements 6 Elements Atomic Number: Number of Protons Number: Atomic Mass: Sum of Protons and Neutrons Mass: Chemical Bonding Unhappy atoms Chemical Bonding Unhappy atoms Happy atoms 7 Cation Substitution: Cations of similar sizes & charges tend to substitute for one another. Forms compounds with the same crystal structure with different chemical formulas. Isotopes: variations of elements How do minerals form? by Crystallization: Atoms in a gas or liquid state bond together in the proper proportions & 3D arrangements The 3D arrangements grow outward in all directions 8 When do minerals form? As liquid evaporates from a solution Halite: Ionic Bonding Unhappy atoms Happy atoms 9 What is so special about the cube? Chloride ion Sodium ion 1. Bond strength 2. Size of the ions CUBIC STRUCTURE Halite, NaCl When do minerals form? Solidify from a hot, mobile fluid. 10 When do minerals form? When do minerals form? Diamonds: Covalent Bonding 11 Diamonds: Covalent Bonding Graphite: Covalent Bonding 12 van der Walls Bonding van der Walls Bonding Polymorphs Different structures produced by the same chemical compounds 13 Copper: Metallic Bonding Physical Properties of Minerals CaCO3 Physical Properties of Minerals Hardness: How easy is it to scratch a mineral? 14 Physical Properties of Minerals Cleavage: Does the mineral break along flat planes? Physical Properties of Minerals Cleavage: Does the mineral break along flat planes? Physical Properties of Minerals Fracture: Does the mineral break along non-planer surfaces? non- Conchoidal fracture 15 Physical Properties of Minerals Fracture: Does the mineral break along non-planer surfaces? non- Physical Properties of Minerals Luster: Does the mineral reflect light? Physical Properties of Minerals Luster: How does the mineral reflect light? 16 Physical Properties of Minerals Color: What color is the mineral? Physical Properties of Minerals Streak: What color are small particles of a mineral? Physical Properties of Minerals Density: How heavy is the mineral? 17 Physical Properties of Minerals Habit: In what shape do the crystals grow? Physical Properties of Minerals: p. 61 Rock-Forming Minerals Rock- Bad news: About 92 naturally-occurring elements. naturallyCan be arranged in about 3500 minerals. Good news: Only about 9 naturally-occurring elements are naturallyabundant in the Earth's crust. Earth' Compose about 30 commonly found minerals. 18 Rock-Forming Minerals RockAluminum (8%) Silicon (28%) Iron (6%) Magnesium (4%) Calcium (2.4%) Other (5.6%) CRUST Oxygen (46%) Oxygen and Silicon: Make up more than 74% (by weight) of the earth's crust. earth' 19 ...
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