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CSD 200 STUDY GUIDE – EXAM TWO Diagnosis and Treatment Diagnosis- defined as the systematic process of gathering information about an individual including background, history, skills, knowledge, perceptions, and feelings Treatment – defined as implementation of a plan of action to improve one or more aspects of an individual’s communicative abilities (must consider effectiveness, efficiency, and adherence) The Assessment Process 1. Screening and Referral 2. Designing the assessment protocol 3. Administering the assessment protocol 4. Interpreting findings and diagnosing 5. Developing a Tx plan 6. Monitoring progress Four Different Types of Assessment 1. Norm referenced – standardized, compares an individual’s performance to a normative sample, must yield a standard score 2. Criterion referenced – determines level of achievement for a particular area, judged against a criteria, intense probing, must have a clear standard of performance, specific tasks that reliably document performance, and have clear guidelines for interpretation. 3. Performance based assessment – also known as authentic assessment, views performance in a variety of context, systematic observation, questionnaire or survey, examines how performance relates to content, may include artifact analysis or live observation 4. Dynamic assessment - based on learning potential and reduces testing bias, based on a test- teach-retest method, useful for people with diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds Screening a quick general check of an individual’s ability in a particular area, typically quick, inexpensive, broad, requires little training vs. comprehensive evaluation more through, involves case history, oral mech exam, hearing screening, swallowing, articulation, language, cognition, voice and fluency Differential diagnosis – defined by systematically eliminating possible alternate disorders in order to accurately determine the diagnosis Validity – extent to which an instrument measures what it says it measures 1. Construct Validity – based on some underlying construct or idea behind an assessment tool 2. Face Validity – examines whether a test is stable across multiple examiners 3. Criterion Validity – does the testing tool reflect the abilities of other assessments measuring the same construct 4. Concurrent Validity – determines how scores on one instrument relate to another ‘established’ or ‘valid’ assessment tool 5. Predictive Validity – determined by how one’s performance on an instrument predicts future performance Reliability – extent to which an instrument is considered consistent in its measurement 1. Test – retest reliability – examines whether a test is reliable/stable over time, a score should be stable from time 1 to time 2 2. Inter-rater reliability - examines whether a test is stable across multiple examiners, score obtained by two different examiners should be similar
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