Lecture_18___butter_manufacturing

Lecture_18___butter_manufacturing - Butter Manufacturing...

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1 Butter Manufacturing Carmen I. Moraru Cornell University What is butter? - Butter = a water-in-oil emulsion, comprised of >80% milkfat, obtained by the mechanical treatment of cream (churning) - General composition of butter: - fat (80 - 82%) - water - dispersed in fine droplets (15.6 - 17.6%) - salt - for salted varieties (about 1.2%) - protein, calcium and phosphorous (about 1.2%) - small amounts of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D and E) - Butter types: - Sweet cream butter - Cultured or sour cream butter - Based on the salt content: - Unsalted - Salted - Extra salted
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2 Butter structure Moisture droplets containing MSNF and salt Partially crystalline fat globules Continuous phase of non- globular fat Semi-continuous network of fat crystals Cryo-SEM butter structure showing an arrangement of fat globules (yellow) and fat crystals (green). www.distans.livstek.lth.se:2080 10 μm. - The structure of the fat network is determined by the extent of globular vs. non-globular fat, which is controlled to a large extent by the: - Milk fat composition - Cream aging - Amount of physical working applied to butter after churning. Processing steps Raw milk Centrifugal separation Cream Skim milk Churning Butter Packaging Cold storage 85ºC/15sec Working and salting Inoculation Ripening (aging) 14ºC/20h Pasteurization Buttermilk Starter culture 14ºC Washing Water (12ºC)
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3 The butter process Photo : TetraPak Dairy Processing Handbook, 2003 1 - Milk reception 2 - Preheating and pasteurization of skim milk 3 - Fat separation 4 - Cream pasteurization 5 - Vacuum deaeration 6 - Culture preparation 7 - Cream ripening and souring 8 - Temperature treatment 9 - Churning/working (batch) 10 - Churning/working (continuous) 11 - Buttermilk collection 12 - Butter silo with screw conveyor 13 - Packaging machines Processing factors that affect butter quality - Raw material - For Grade AA butter: sweet cream (pH >6.6, TA = 0.10 - 0.12%), not rancid and not oxidized. - Cream pasteurization - Performed at high temperatures, in order to inactivate the enzymes and microorganisms that would have a negative effect on the keeping quality of butter. - Cream aging / ripening - Has an important role in acidity and flavor development (biochemical aging) and fat crystallization (physical aging)
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4 Biochemical aging - Culture used: - Called “butter culture” - Composition: Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris. - The colder the aging temperature, the higher the flavor development as compared to acid production. - Example of aging conditions: - Aging to pH 5.5 at 21ºC and then to pH 4.6 at 13ºC. - Most flavor development occurs between pH 5.5 - 4.6. Biochemical aging (contd.) - Stage I: - Slow acid production. - Aroma production is relatively insignificant. - Stage II: - Acid production accelerates rapidly - Diacetyl is formed by citric fermentation.
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2009 for the course FDSC 4250 taught by Professor Moraru during the Spring '09 term at Cornell.

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Lecture_18___butter_manufacturing - Butter Manufacturing...

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