Lecture_20___cheese_making__1_

Lecture_20___cheese_making__1_ - Cheese Making Principles...

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1 Cheese Making Principles Carmen I. Moraru Cornell University How is cheese made? - Cheese making is the process of removing water, lactose and some minerals from milk to produce a concentrate of milk fat and protein.
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2 Depending on the raw material and composition: - Milk type (species): cow, goat, sheep, buffalo, yak, etc. - Firmness (related to moisture content): - Soft: >67% MFFB (moisture /fat free basis) - Semi-soft: 61-69% MFFB - Semi-hard: 54-63% MFFB - Hard: 49-56% MFFB - Extra-hard: <41% MFFB - Fat content: - Skim: <10% FDM (fat in dry matter) - Low fat: 10-25% FDM - Medium fat: 25-45% FDM - Full fat: 45-60% FDM - High fat: >60% FDM Types of cheese - Coagulation / coagulum type: - Rennet gel - Acid gel - Heat-acid precipitate - pH control: - Direct acidification - Fermentation - Extent of acid development: - Low acid (minimum pH > 5.8): Latin American fresh cheeses - Medium acid (minimum pH 4.9 - 5.5): most European varieties - High acid (minimum pH < 4.9): fresh cheese, soft ripened cheese - Salting procedure: - Salting before forming (internal) - Surface salting after forming (external) - Immersion in brine Depending on the processing method
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3 Depending on the ripening method and cheese characteristics - Type and duration of ripening: - Fresh vs. ripened - Interior (including blue veined cheeses) - Interior and surface ripened - Bacterial/yeast smears - White surface mold - Structure: - Without openings - With openings - Type of rind: - Rindless-waxed, film wrapped, painted - Dry rind (cured at 85% relative humidity) - Surface ripened (cured at 90-95% relative humidity) - Melting properties: - No melt: softening without flow (frying cheese) - Stretching: low melt and strongly elastic (Mozzarella) - Fondue: medium melt, medium elasticity (Raclette) - High melt: flows readily with no stretch (aged Cheddar) Cheese manufacturing process Milk Clarification Cooling Heat treatment Homogenization Cutting Coagulation Culturing Draining Brining Pressing Molding/forming Ripening Preliminary treatment Standardization
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4 Preliminary treatment of milk - Clarification = typically meant to filter out debris, but it can also result in reduction of microflora. - Other (non-heat based) methods for reducing the bacterial load: - Bactofugation - Microfiltration Bactofugation of cheese milk Bactofugation with intermittent discharge and sterilization of the bactofugate - Particularly used in Europe - It removes 95% of the spores the risk of late gas defect caused by Clostridium tyrobutyricum is reduced, but not eliminated - In order to avoid yield loss, the bactofugate (12-16% d.m.) is sometimes UHT sterilized and added back in the cheese milk 1 Pasteurizer 2 Centrifugal separator 3 Automatic standardization system 4 One-phase bactofuge 5 Pump Photo : TetraPak Dairy Process. Handbook, 2003
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5 Bactofugation of cheese milk (2) Bactofugation with continuous discharge, sterilization and remix of the bactofugate Photo : TetraPak Dairy Process. Handbook, 2003 Microfiltration of cheese milk
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2009 for the course FDSC 4250 taught by Professor Moraru during the Spring '09 term at Cornell.

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Lecture_20___cheese_making__1_ - Cheese Making Principles...

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