A rheological evaluation of concentrated casein systems as replacement for gluten, calcium effects

A rheological evaluation of concentrated casein systems as replacement for gluten, calcium effects

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Vol 61 International Journal of Dairy Technology 1 ORIGINAL RESEARCH *Author for correspondence. E-mail: costas.stathopoulos @newcastle.edu.au © 2008 Society of Dairy Technology doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0307.2008.00424.x Blackwel Publishing Ltd Oxford, UK IDT International Journal of Dairy Technology 1364-727X 1364-0307 Society of Dairy Technology 20 8 XXX ±ORIGINAL±RESEARCH ORIGINAL RESEARCH A rheological evaluation of concentrated casein systems as replacement for gluten: calcium effects COSTAS E STATHOPOULOS 1 * and BRENDAN T. O’KENNEDY 2 1 School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, PO Box 127, Ourimbah, NSW 2258, Australia and 2 Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland Gluten substitution in the production of bread suitable for celiacs is challenging due to the unique viscoelastic properties of gluten. Caseinates are widely used for their functional properties, and in this study a production protocol for an aggregated casein-based ingredient forti±ed with Ca was developed. It was envisaged that the S-S bonds that govern the properties of gluten would be replaced by Ca + bonds, and the effect of calcium concentration on the yield, texture and rheology has been evaluated. The aggregated casein samples produced were more elastic than gluten, but their behaviour under heating was signi±cantly different. A concentration of 30 mg Ca/g protein appeared to provide the platform for a material that under the correct ionic and temperature conditions could provide a single ingredient for gluten substitution. Keywords Calcium caseinate, Casein aggregation, Gluten-free, Rheology, Texture. * Author for cor espondence. E-mail: costas.stathopoulos@newcastle.edu.au INTRODUCTION The ‘free-from’ market is a rapidly developing sector worldwide, worth more than US$120 million, while wheat- and gluten-free breads and cakes account for more than US$65 million (Ciacci et al . 2007). The replacement of gluten presents a major technological challenge, as gluten is an essential structure-building protein, contributing to the appearance and crumb structure of many baked products (Gallagher et al . 2004; Lazaridou et al . 2007). Dairy ingredients have been used for a number of years, and have found numerous applications in the gluten-free market (Stathopoulos 2007). They are extensively used for their function- ality, nutritional value, and their ease of production. The most widely used dairy ingredients in gluten- free bread formulations are caseinates (Lazaridou et al . 2007), skim milk powder (Moore et al . 2004; McCarthy et al . 2005), dry milk (Sanchez . 2004), whey protein concentrate (Sanchez . 2004) and milk protein isolate (Gallagher et al . 2003). At present, mixtures of gums, hydrocolloids and dairy protein products are the most popular approach (McCarthy et al . 2005; Lazaridou et al . 2007), however, many gluten-free breads available in the market are of poor quality and Favour, and many exhibit a dry crumbling texture (Gallagher et al . 2003, 2004; McCarthy et al . 2005).
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2009 for the course FDSC 4250 taught by Professor Moraru during the Fall '09 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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A rheological evaluation of concentrated casein systems as replacement for gluten, calcium effects

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