study guide psyc314-1

study guide psyc314-1 - I. Drawing Conclusions A. External...

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I. Drawing Conclusions A. External Validity 1. applicable to real world situations outside of lab experiment 2. Threats: a. Participants are not representative of population you want to generalize your results to b. Artificial setting- setting doesn’t represent natural setting that you are testing c. Artificial treatment- creating treatments that may not be realistic enough to generalize to real world experiences (ie: showing photographs and documenting reaction time to ethnicity) B. Internal Validity 1. a clear connection btw independent and dependent variables 2. Threats: a. selection bias: lack of random assignment b. Testing effects: affects of using pretests before experiment on the actual experiment itself; could threaten consistency or demand characteristics; possible solution delayed post- test (but this can create history, maturation, mortality) i Pre-test: Do you approve of federal support for Planned Parenthood? ii Manipulation: Statistics towards taxpayers expense towards unwanted pregnancy Is the manipulation changing behavior? Add a control group to quantify the manipulation itself control group: statistics towards migratory birds, etc iii Post-test: Do you approve of federal support for Planned Parenthood? c. history: unexpected events affecting independent variables d. maturation: biological, psychological, or emotional process within participants affecting dependent variables (ie: hunger through long experiment) e. experimental mortality: when participants do not continue throughout experiment f. contamination or diffusion of treatment: when different groups communicate w/each other in regards to experiment i experimenter expectancy: indirectly communicating desired findings to participants; can limit this by using double-blind experiments , assistance don’t know certain details
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3. The Solomon Four Groups Design: adds TWO MORE GROUPS to avoid testing effects, without adding history, maturation, or mortality problems a. Group1: Pre-test experimental condition post test b. Group 2: Pre-test control condition post test c. Group 3: no pre-test experimental condition post test d. Group 4: no pre-test control condition post test i Ie: if testing whether self-introduction helps waiters get more tips, the first two groups will be trained to either introduce themselves to customers (group 1 experimental condition) or not to (group 2, control condition); group 2 and 3 will receive no training II. Types of Designs A. Before-and-After Comparisons: modifying something and then comparing the outcome to what existed b4 the modification 1. Ie: computer is running slow so you do a system cleanup to see if it simply needed a cleanup (hypothesis), then run computer again and see if it runs faster B. Side-by-Side Comparisons: have two similar things, modify one but not the other and compare the two 1. Ie: you have two cans and you shake one and leave the other untouched, then open both and compare which one has more fizz
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This note was uploaded on 05/03/2009 for the course PSYC 314L taught by Professor Renken during the Spring '07 term at USC.

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study guide psyc314-1 - I. Drawing Conclusions A. External...

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