geo107-StudyGuide

geo107-StudyGuide - SPRING 2009-INTRODUCTION TO...

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SPRING 2009---INTRODUCTION TO OCEANOGRAPHY--- GEOL 107 Study Guide #1 Note: these guides are designed to help you decide what is important to know from the lecture and book material. They may not cover every single topic I might ask about on an exam, but they cover most topics. -Egyptians, Minoans, Phoenicians, Polynesians—who ‘invented’ oceanography? -Why did these early cultures explore the ocean? -What did Eratosthenes contribute to oceanography? -How did the loss of Eratosthenes’ work affect oceanographers over 1000 years later? -The age of European exploration of the oceans and foreign lands took place over what general time period? Name some of the well-known European explorers of this era. -The modern era of oceanography may be considered to have started with the cruises of the Challenger, T or F, why? -Explain the ‘Hubble or Red Shift’ Phenomena. -Did our solar system form at the same time? -How did the Earth form? through the process of density stratisfication, which is the formation of layers in a material with each layer being denser than the one above -What differentiates the core from the mantle from the crust? Mantle and crusts are solids while the core is liquid -Where did the water on earth come from? Compression of rocks Volcanoes emitted water vapor (outgassing) Outgassed water vapor turned into heavy rain As surfaces cooled, some water would flow back towards clouds Terms A. Hancock Echo Sounding Trawl net Gulf Stream- western boundary that carries warm water to the northern atlantic; cohesiveness in body of water and flows like a river; cold coastal countercurrent Chronometer- time keeper that can be used as a portable time standard, can be used to determine longitude through celestial navigation Circumference of Earth- 24,901.55 miles (40,075.16 kilometers). Differentiation- process of forming layers of material with each layer denser than the layer above Fusion-Nucleosynthesis- process of H combining to form He, a heavier element; also the process of H and O to give H2O 15 billion years ago- big bang 4.5 billion years ago- earth formed Heavy and light elements- heavier elements go towards the interior of earth’s surface and lighter elements float to top Core, Mantle, Crust-
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CORE (2900-6370 km deph); composed mostly of iron; inner core solid; outer core liquid; Temperatures greater the 5000 K MANTLE (~100-2900 km depth); Composed on Fe and Mg rich silicates; solid rock but ductile; Temperatures from ~5000*K-1000*K Study Guide #2 (Structure of Earth – Plate tectonics) -How do we know the core of the earth is solid, the outer core liquid---what important property does this solid-liquid combination bestow upon the planet (A: magnet field)? Because of P-waves and S-waves, P-waves travel back and forth, S-waves travel up and down; Because S-waves can’t travel through liquid, we know Earth=solid and outer core=liquid -Why are there 2 types of crust, which is denser, why? One type of crust is in the ocean, the other is the continental crust; oceanic crust is denser b/c its under water -How do we know the oceans have been around for ~4.1 billion years?
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