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learning and memory- final quiz

learning and memory- final quiz - Quiz 1 Malot Ch 1&2 Terry...

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Quiz 1: Malot Ch. 1&2, Terry Ch. 1 Quiz 2: Malott Ch. 3 &4, Terry Ch. 2 Quiz 4: Malot Ch. 7, Terry Ch.4 Quiz 8: Malott Ch.14, Terry Ch. 8 I. Malott Ch. 14: Imitation A. Imitation: the form of behavior by an imitator is controlled by a model of similar behavior 1. Form of behavior Does NOT occur simply when behavior of the imitator is similar to the behavior of the model not imitation if similar behavior was controlled by the same contingency (reinforcement not contingent on imitation) a. Ie: loud noise causes all people in the stadium to cover their ears b. Reinforcement would not be contingent on imitation of surrounding behaviors (at least not entirely) but on escaping the aversive condition c. Ie: cars all move when green light is on similar behavior contingent on stimulus of “green light,” not imitation B. Training Imitation 1. Physical Prompt: (physical guidance) a trainer physically moves the trainee’s body in an approximation of the desired response 2. Imitation training: to teach Ninja to sit, we say “Sit” as we push his butt down; we slowly stop pushing his butt down, and each time he is able to “sit” on command, we reinforce him with a treat; no sitting= prevention of reward stimulus 3. Training imitation requires a discrimination contingency and a differential contingency : a. Discrimination reinforcement: reinforcing appropriate behavior that occur in response to a specific discriminative stimulus (ie: discriminative stimulus of command “sit” causes ninja to sit) b. Differential reinforcement: (S D ) unless they respond at the right time (immediately) and make the correct response to the specific stimulus, (ninja actually “sits” at command “sit,” not “shakes” or “plays dead”) they will not be reinforced A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished C. Generalized imitation: imitation of the response of a model w/o previous reinforcement of imitation of that specific response 1. Ie: A new teacher tells us to “be quiet” for the first time, and immediately classroom becomes quiet even though she had never previously reinforced the “be quiet” command a. People can perform specific imitative responses w/o direct reinforcement of those specific responses
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2. However, in order 4 unreinforced imitative responses to occur, reinforcement of some other imitative responses must first occur a. Training: discriminative + differential reinforcements 3. Theory of Generalized Imitation : Generalized imitation responses occur b/c they are automatically produced by built-in reinforcers after frequent exposure to the original reinforcer a. Example 1: discriminative stimulus: Teacher tells Jill to draw a star Response: Jill draws a star Reinforcement: Teacher praises Jill and rewards her with a candy bar Automatic Reinforcement: Jill seeing and feeling her behavior match the model Afterwards, the teacher asks Jill if she can draw a star next to the circle, and Jill does so without being
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