3d_-_Quality_Parameters_of_Fresh-cut_Fruit_and_Vegetable_Products

3d_-_Quality_Parameters_of_Fresh-cut_Fruit_and_Vegetable_Products

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Unformatted text preview: an : Lanihan..,, O. (lAi\&) . 2oo2 . 6cth-c.,.b CRg ?r.t' *eshr.olotrY r anl rslrl'1't- $.vitr onl va1et.\\cs ' 56jcnce, lan, FL Section 3d ) aualitYParameters ^L Fruit of Fresh-cut Products and Vegetable AdelA. Kader CONTENTS ""12 Quality Parameters......... """"'12 -------(Visual)Quality Factors Appearance """"" 13 Textural(Feel) Quality Factors "" 13 Flavor (Eating)QualityFactors"""""""' 13 NutritionalQualityFactors-------"""""" 14 FactorsInfluencingQuality Preharvest "'-""""" 14 --------and Rootstocks Genotypes """"" 14 Climatic Factors """"-' 14 CulturalPractices..........."""""""' 15 Maturity and Ripening.... """"' 15 Maturity """""' 16 Ripening........... """"-' 16 FactorsInfluencingQuality Postharvest 16 ........physicalDamageDuring Harvestingand Handling """""11 and RelativeHumidity Management Temperature ---..17 Applied to the Commodity Treatments Supplemental Involving Manipulation Treatments Supplemental """"""' 17 of the Environment......-""' l8 ----.--..Fruit Products Life of Fresh-cut Flavor vs. Appearance """"'" 18 ...-. Programs QualityAssurance .'"' 19 References.... of attributes,prop Quality of fresh-cutfruit and vegetableproductsis a combination that erties,or characteristics determinetheir valueto the consumerQuality parameters includeappearance, texture,flavor, and nutritive value.The relativeimportanceof each quality p*u*.ter depends upon the commodity or the productand whetherit is eaten and dips) or cooked-Confresh (with or without flavor modifiers, such as dressings and on judge quality of fresh-cutfruits and vegetables the basis of appearance sumers l -5E7 G03G7/02$0.0O+$ I | .5O e 2m2 by CRC hess LLC 1l 12 Science,Technology, and Market Fresh-cutFruits and Vegetables: Section 3d pur("best if usedby" date)at the time of purchase. However,subsequent freshness in termsof texruraland flavor(eating) uponthe consumer's satisfaction depend chases qualityandsafety in are Consumers alsointerested the nutritional quatiryof theproduct. of fresh-cutproducts. cultural preharvest uponthe cultivar, depends Qualityof the intactfruit or vegetable Handling method. and maturiryat harvest, harvesting and practices climaticconditions, product asa fresh-cut and harvest preparation and conditions, timebetween procedures, and,consequently, also havemajor impactson qualityof intactfruits andvegetables productsAdditionalfactorsthat influencequality of fresh-cut quality of the fresh-cut (sharpness the cutting tools, of include method of preparation fruits and vegetables areaof the cut pieces,washing,and removal of surfacemoisture) size and surface optiof speed cooling,maintaining handlingconditions(packaging, and subsequent and proper and relativehumidity,expeditedmarketing, mum rangesof temperature program must takeinto conAn procedures). effectivequality assurance sanitation and siderationall the factorsthat affectquality of the intact fruits or vegetables their fresh-cutproducts. QUALITY PARAMETERS (Vrsunt) ApprnnnNcr Quallw Fncrons These may include size, shape,color, gloss,and freedom from defectsand decay. birds, Defectscan originatebefore harvestas a resultof damageby insects,diseases, russeting, (such as scars,scabs, and hail; chemicalinjuries; and variousblemishes physical,physiological, defectsmay be morphological, rind staining).Postharvest onions,and Morphologicaldefectsincludesproutingof potatoes, or pathological. germination seed garlic; rooting of onions; elongationand curvatureof asparagus; in presence seedstems cabbage of and fruits suchaslemons,tomatoes, peppers; inside and lettuce; doublesin cherries; and floret opening in broccoli- Physicaldefects internal drying of somefruits; include shrivelingand wilting of all commodities; splitsandcrushing, cutsand deepscratches, such as punctures, rnechanical damage and bruising; and growth and scuffing, deformation(compression), skin abrasions (freezing,chilling,sunburn, (radial,concentric)disorders Temperature-related cracks internal tipburnof lettuce, rot puffiness tomatoes, of blossom-end tomatoes, sunscald), potatoesare breakdown of stone fruits, water core of apples,and black heart of examples physiologicaldefects. of life Examplesof defectsthat do not influencepostharvest potentialof freshproduce include healed frost damage,scars,and scabs;well-healedinsect stings;irregular Most otherdefects(listedabove) shape;and suboptimalcolor uniformity andintensity. reducepostharvest potential of fresh fruits and vegetables. life Tissuebrowning,which can be a major defectof fresh-cutfruits and vegetables, dependsupon the concentration phenoliccompounds,the activity of polyphenol of in of oxidase(PPO), and the concentration antioxidants the tissue-Wound-induced (mainly in the loss of cellularcompartmentation betweenthe phenoliccompounds browning at a ratethatincreases vacuole)and PPO (in the cytoplasm)resultsin tissue with temperature water stress. and t o Q u a l i t y P a r a m e t e r s f F r e s h - c u F r u i t a n d V e g e t a b l eP r o d u c t s Section 1 3 3d (Frrr)QunrlrvFncrons Trxrunnr juiciness, These includefirmness, depending the crispness, on and mealiness, toughness commodity. Texruralqualiryof fruits and vegetables not only important their eating for is andcookingquality but alsofor tlreir shippingabiliry.Soft fruits cannot shippedlong be without extensive distances harvestlosses to physicalinjuries.This hasnecessitated due ing fruits at less than ideal maturity from the flavor qualiry shndpointin many cases, suchas the melonssold during the winter monthsin the U.S. markets. Tissuesofteningand associated loss of integrity and leakageof juice from some fresh-cutproducts can be the primary causeof poor quality and unmarketability. calciumconcentration the tissue Increasing rate.Also, in can slow down its softening initial firmness,temperature, vibration influencethe rate of softeningand juice and leakagefrom fresh-cutfruits. Fmvon(EnnNc) Qunury Fncrons (acidity), astringency, Theseinclude sweetness, aroma,and offsourness bitterness, flavors.Flavor quality involves perceptionof the tastesand aromasof many compounds.Objective analyticaldetermination critical components must be coupled of evaluations a taste information with subjective by panelto yield usefuland meaningful quality of freshfruits and vegetables. aboutflavor This approach be usedto define can a minimum level of acceptability. find out consumerpreferences flavor of a given of To large-scale is commodity, testing a representative by sampleof the consumers required. (sweetness), Flavorquality of mostfruits is influencedby their contents sugars of volatiles (astringency), odor-active organicacids(acidity),phenolic compounds and (aroma).More information is neededabout the optimum concentration ranges of goodoverallflavor(based sensory of these constituents assure to on evaluation) each and develkind of fruit (to satisfy the majority of consumers). Also, future research qualityevaluation opmenteffortson objective methodsmust includenondestructive segregation fruits on the basisof their contentsof sugars, of acids,phenolics,and volatiles.In many cases, or odor-active consumers willing to pay a higher price are stores for fruits with good flavor,and thereis a growing trend of high-quality-based that servethis clientele. Nurnrnor.rnl QuAurYFncrons Fresh fruits and vegetables play a significant role in human nutrition, especially as (vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin Bu, thiamine,niacin),minerals,and sources vitamins of dietary fiber. Other constituents that may lower the risk of cancer, heart disease,and other diseases include flavonoids, polyphenols,and other phytonutrients. carotenoids, Postharvest lossesin nutritionalquality,particularlyvitamin C content, can be substantial andareenhanced physicaldamage, by extended storage duration, high temperatures, low relativehumidiry, and chilling injury of chilling-sensitive cornmodities. Nutritionalvalue variesgreatlyamongcommoditiesand cultivars eachcomof modity. By using plant breedingand biotechnologyapproaches, is possible to it developgenotypeswith enhanced quality and improvedflavor quality to nutritional (at encourage consumers eatmorefruits and vegetables leastfive servingsper day). to 14 , F r e s h - c u tF r u i t sa n d V e g e t a b l e s :S c i e n c e T e c h n o lo g y , a n d M a r k e t Section This can have a major positiveimpact on human healthand shouldbe given high 3d programsworldwide. and extension priority in research F PREHARVEST ACTORS INFLUENCING QUALITY AND Roorsrocxs GrruorvPEs qualiry, Witlin eachcommodity,thereis a range of genorypicvariationin composition, in life potential.Plant breedershave been successful selectingcarrot and postharvest and tomato cultivarswith much higher carotenoidsand vitamin A content,sweetcorn cultivars with longer after haryest,cantaloupe cultivars that maintain their sweetness higher sugar contentand firmer flesh, and pineapplecultivarswith higher contentsof of These arejust a few examples what has been and ascorbicacid, carotenoids, sugars. geneticmanipulationsby accomplishedin improving quality of fruits and vegetables for cultivars, selected their ability to wittrstand corrrmercial However, in some cases, quality,particularlyflavor marketinganddistribution,tend to lack sufficient therigors of Rootstocks used in fiuit production vary in their water and nutrient uptake fruit can influence Thus,rootstocks to abilitiesand in resistance pestsand diseases. compositionand somequality attributesas well as yield, in many casesThere are many opportunitiesin using biotechnologyto maintain postharvest quality and safety of fresh-cutproducts- However, the priority goals should be to ieduce browning potentialand softeningrate, to attainand maintain good flavor and to resistance physand to introduce demands, nutritionalquality to meetconsumer to pathogens reducethe use of chemicalsand/ordecay-causing iological disorders issues)shouldbe used (includingconsumeracceptance analysis A cost/benefit For example,increasing to determinepriorities for geneticimprovementprograms. the consumption of certain commodities and/or cultivarsthat are alreadyhigh in than breedingfor higher nutritive value may be more effective and less expensive contentsof nutrients. Cumanc Fncrons have a stronginfluence and light intensity, temperature Climatic factors,especially the Consequently, on compositionand nutritionalquality of fruits and vegetables. location and seasonin which plants are grown can determinetheir ascorbicacid, the In and flavonoidscontent. general, lower the light riboflavin,thiamine, carotene, influences Temperature of planttissues. acid content the intensity, lower the ascorbic increases transpiration of uptakeand metabolism mineralnutrientsby plantsbecause to the plant, which may Rainfall affects the water supply with higher temperatures. to plant part and its susceptibility mechanical of the harvested influencecomposition harvestingand handling operations. damageduring subsequent Culrunnl PnncrlcEs Soil type, the rootstockused for fruit trees,mulching,irrigation,and fertilization influence the water and nutrientsupply to the plant, which can affect the nutritional plant parl. The effect of fertilizerson.the vitamin contentof quality of the harvested o t Q u a l i t y P a r a m e t e r s f F r e s h - c u F r u i ta n d v e g e t a b l e P r o d u c t s 15 Section 3d plantsis less importantthan the effectsof genotypeand climaticconditions,but their influenceon rnineralcontentis more significant.For example, sulfur and selenium uptakeinfluencethe concentrations organosulfur in compounds Allium andBrassica of High calciumcontentin fruits has beenrelatedto longerpostharvest as species. life a result of reducedrates of respirationand ethyleneproduction,delayedripening, increasedfirmness,and reducedincidenceof physiologicaldisordersand decay.In contrast,high nitrogen contentis often associated life due with shorterpostharvest to increased susceptibility mechanical anddecay. physiological disorders, to damage, Increasingthe nitrogenand/orphosphorus supply to citrustreesresultsin somewhat potassium lower acidity and ascorbicacid contentin citrus fruits, while increased fertilizationincreases their acidity and ascorbicacid content. Therearenumerous physiological with associated mineraldeficiencies. disorders For example,bitter pit of apples;blossom-endrot of tomatoes, peppers,and waterwith melons;cork spot in applesand pears;and red blotch of lemonsare associated calcium deficiency in thesefruits. Boron deficiency resultsin corking of apples,' apricots,and pears; lumpy rind of citrus fruits; malformationof stone fruits; and cracking of apricots.Poor color of stone fruits may be relatedto iron and lor zinc Excesssodiumand/orchloride (due to salinity)resultsin reduced deficiencies. fruit size and higher solublesolidscontent. Severewater stressresultsin increasedsunburnof fruits, irregular ripening of pears,and tough and leatherytextureof peaches. reduces fruit Moderatewaterstress contents solublesolids,acidity,and ascorbic sizeand increases acid.On the other of hand,excesswater supplyto the plantsresultsin crackingof fruits (suchas cherries, pnrnes,and tomatoes), to excessive turgidity leadingto increased susceptibility physical damage, reduced firmness, delayed solublesolidscontent. maturity,and reduced Cultural practices suchaspruningand thinningdetermine crop load andfruit the and growth size, which can influencecompositionof fruit. The use of pesticides regulatorsdoes not directly influencefruit compositionbut may indirectly affect it due to delayed or accelerated fruit maturity. MATURITY ND RIPENING A Mnrunrry Maturationis the stageof development leading to the attainment physiological of when or horticulturalmaturity.Physiological maturity is the stageof development a plant or plant part will continue Horticulturalmaturity ontogenyevenif detached. is the stageof development the when a plant or plant part possesses prerequisites utilization by consumers a particular purpose. for for Maturity at harvestis the most important factor that determines storagelife and final fruit quality. Immaturefruits are more subjectto shrivelingand mechanical damageand are of inferior quality when ripe. Overripe fruits are likely to become soft and mealy with insipid flavor soon after harvest.Any jruit picked either too disorders and has early or too late in its season more susceptible physiological to is a shorterstoragelife than fruit picked at the proper maturity. 16 F r e s h - c u tF r u i t s a n d V e g e t a b l e s S c i e n c e , e c h n o l o g y ,a n d M a r k e t : T Section All fruits and mature-fruit vegetables, with a few exceptions(such as European3d pears,avocados, bananas), and reachtheir besteatingquality when allowedto ripen on the tree or plant. However, some fruits are usually picked mature but unripe so that they canwithstand postharvest the handlingsystem when shippedlong distance. Most currentlyusedmaturity indicesarebasedon a compromisebetweenthoseindices that would ensure best eating quality to the consumerand thosethat providethe the neededflexibility in marketing. For most non-fruit- and immafure-fruit-vegetables (e.g., cucumbers,summer squash,sweetcorn, green beans,and sweetpeas),the optimum eatingquality is reachedbeforefull maturity. In thesevegetables, problem frequentlyis delayed the harvest,which resultsin lower quality at harvest and fasterdeterioration afterharvest. RrprNrruc Ripening is thecomposite the processes occurfrom the latter stages growth of that of and development through the early stagesof senescence that resultsin characand teristic aesthetic and/or food quality,as evidenced changes composition, by in color, texture, or other sensoryattributes. Fruits can be divided into two groups:fruits that are not capableof continuing their ripening processonce removed from the plant and fruits that can be harvested mature and ripenedoff the plant. The following are examplesfrom eachgroup: ' Grouponeincludesberries(suchasblackberry, raspberry, strawberry), cherry, citrus (grapefruit,lemon, lime, orange,mandarin,and tangerine),grape, lychee,muskmelons, pineapple, pomegranate, tamarillo, and watermelon. ' Group two includes apple, pear, quince, persimmon, apricot, nectarine, peach, plum, kiwifruit, avocado, banana, mango,papaya,cherimoya, sapoguava,passionfruit, and tomato. dilla, sapote, Fruits of the first group, with the exception of some types of muskmelons, producevery small quantitiesof ethyleneand do not respondto ethylenetreatment exceptin termsof degreening (removalof chlorophyll);theseshouldbe pickedwhen fully ripe to ensuregood flavor quality. Fruits in group two produce much larger quantitiesof ethylenein associationwith their ripening, and exposureto erhylene treatment(100 ppm for I to 2 days at 20"C) rvill result in faster and more uniform ripening. Once fruits are ripened, they require more careful handling to minimize bruising. Fruits in group two must be ripened,at least partially, before cutting to assurebetterflavor quality in the fresh-cutproducts- POSTHARVEST FACTORS INFTUENCING QUALITY PHysrcll DnmnGE DuRtNc HARVESnNG Hnruouxc AND Harvestingmethodcan determinethe extentof variability in maturity and physical injuries and,consequently, influencecomposition and quality of fruits andvegetables. Mechanical injuries(bruising,surface abrasions, cuts,etc.)can accelerate of water loss P o F Quality Parameters f Fresh-cut ruitand Vegetable roducts 17 Section 3d pathogens. incidence The and vitaminC and increase to susceptibility decay-causing and severityof such injuries are influencedby the method of harvest(hand vsand handlingoperations. and management the harvesting mechanical) of to Physical damage before,during,and aftercuttingis a major contributor tissue and fasterdeterioration the fresh-cutproducts. of browning, juice leakage, TrmprnnruRE AND Rnnrrvr Humtotrv MnTAGrMENT within their optimal rangesof Keeping intact and fresh-cutfruits and vegetables their temperature relativehumidity is the most importantfactor in maintaining and point (for non-chillingquality and minimizingpostharvest losses. Abovethe freezing sensitive commodities)and above the minimum safe temperature(for chillingdeterioration accelerates in every l0"C increase temperature sensitivecommodities), quality by two- to threefold.Delays betweenharand the rate of loss in nutritional (dueto waterloss losses vestingand coolingor processing resultin quantitative can (losses flavorandnutritionalquality)-The extent losses in and decay)andqualitative upon the commodity'sconditionat harvestand its temperdepends of theselosses especially ature, which can be severaldegreeshigher than ambienttemperatures, when exposed directsunlight. to The distribution chainrarelyhasthe facilitiesto storeeachcommodityunderideal as conditionsand requireshandlersto make compromises to the choicesof temperand loss stress ature and relativehumidity.Thesechoicescan leadto physiological handlingcold of shelf life and quality.The weakesttwo links in the postharvest are chain of fresh fruits and vegetables the retail and home handlingsystems. TnrnrmnNTs AppuEDTo rHE CoMMoDtw SupplruENTAL cleaning,sorting to eliminatedefects, These include curing of "root" vegetables, for with fungicides decay stage, sizing,waxing,treating sortingby maturity/ripeness control, heat treatingfor decay and/or insectcontrol,fumigating for insectcontrol, and sproutingor insectdisinfestation, exposingfruits to irradiatingfor preventing are ethylene for faster and more uniform ripening.In most cases,thesetreatments However, qualityandextending postharvest of the produce. life usefulin maintaining period that can be usedfor each there is a needto determinethe maximum storage commodity betweenharvestand preparationas a fresh-cutproduct. Generally,the longer the storagedurationof the intact commoditybetweenharvestand cutting, the shorterthe post-cutting of the products. life lNvotvrNc MnNrputATtoN TnrnrmrNTs SupptrmENTAr OF THEENVINOruMENT organtype to modificationvary greatlyamongplant species, Responses atmospheric Maintaining of and developmental stage,and duration and temperature exposure. around the optimal rangesof oxygen, carbon dioxide, and ethyleneconcentrations life the commodity extends postharvest by about50-l08Vo relativeto air control. its and lossesof ascorbicacid in In general,low O, atmospheres reduce deterioration acidlosses, up alsoreduceascorbic freshproduce. Elevated CO2atmospheres b lAVo lB T S F r e s h - c u tF r u i t sa n d V e g e t a b l e s : c i e n c e , e c h n o l o g y ,a n d M a r k e t Section 3d On theselosses. the otherhand,COrcan but higherCO, concentrations accelerate in delayingbrowning and microbialgrowth can enrichedatmospheres be beneficial fruits and vegetablesfresh-cut on some and Exposureto ethylenecan be detrimentalto the quality of most vegetables commodities from ethyleneshould be avoidedby separatingethylene-producing and/or by introducingfresh, by sensitivecommodities, using ethylenescrubbers, or rooms.Treatingthe fruits and vegetables their freshair ethylene-free into storage for cut productswith 0.5-l ppm 1-methylcyclopropene about six hours protects action. them againstethYlene Llrr Fuvon vS. AppEARANCE or Fnrsu-cur FRUII PnOoucrs Even under optimum preparationand handling conditions,postcuttinglife basedon is More research neededto identify the flavor is shorterthanthat basedon appearance. to slow it down and to restorethe reasonsfor the flavor loss and possiblefieatments ability of the fruit tissueto producethe desirableestersand other aromacompounds. Use of calciumchloride or calcium lactatein combinationwith ascorbicacid and aid cysteineasa processing (two-minutedip) hasbeenshownto be effectivein firmness in delayingbrowning of fresh-cutfruits.Ethylenescrubbingandmodified retentionand packaging(to maintain 2-5Vo OTand 8-127o CO) can be useful suppleatmosphere in management maintainingquality of fresh-cutfnrit prodrnentsto good temperafure handling and subsequent is ucts.Additionalresearch neededto optimizepreparation of eachfruit productfor procedures maintainingquality and safety PROCRAMS QUATITYASSURANCE harvest throughoutthe handlingstepsbetween systern An effectivequality assurance good-qualitysupplyof freshand retail displayis requiredto provide a consistent and to protect the reputationof a given to cut fruits and vegetables the consumers startsin the field with the selectionof the proper marketinglabel.Quality assurance time to harvestfor maximum quality. Careful harvestingis essentialto minimtze step after harvesthas the physical injuries and maintain quality. Each subsequent can procedures improve potentialto eithermaintain or reducequality; few postharvest the quality of individual units of the commodityrelative humidities, and/or concenExposureof a commodity to temperatures, trations of oxygen,carbon dioxide, and ethyleneoutside its optimum rangeswill The loss of flavor and nutritionalquality of loss accelerate of utt quality attributes. occursat a fasterrate than the lossof textural fresh intactor cut fruits and vegetables programsshould be basedon all qualities.Thus, quality assurance and appearance factorsas is often the case. not quality attributes, only on appearance functions: quality assurance and associated Followingis a list of handlingsteps carefulhandling, l. Trainingworkerson propermaturityandquality selection, and produceprotectionfrom sun exposureduring harvestingoperations upon arrival at the 2. Checkingproduct maturity, quality, and temperature processing Plant t o Q u a l i t y P a r a m e t e r s f F r e s h - c u F r u i t a n d V e g e t a b l eP r o d u c t s 19 3. Implementingan effectivesanitationprogramto reducemicrobial load theymeet to materials and shippingcontainers ensure 4. Checkingpackaging specifications operations and packaging 5. Training workerson properprocessing 6. Inspectinga randomsampleof the packedproductto ensurethat it meets grade specification of completion the cooling proto 7 . Monitoring producttemperature assure . cessbefore shipment andcleanvehicles beforeloadingfor functionality all 8. Inspecting transport liness of 9. Training workerson properloading and placement temperature-recordin eachload ing devices "trace-back"system 10. Keeping recordsof all shipmentsas part of the I l. Checkingproductquality upon receiptand moving it quickly to the appropriate storagearea 12. Shippingproductfrom distributioncenterto retail marketswithout delay a basisunlessits conditionnecessitates different and on a first-in/first-out order REFERENCES affecting phenomena on Beaudry,R.M. 1999.Effect of O, and CO2 partial pressure selected quality.Posthart. Biol. Technol.15:293-303. and vegetable fruit HortScience. fruits and vegetables. Brecht, J.K. 1995. Physiologyof lightly processed 3Ol8-22. disorders physiological affecting factors I., Ferguson, Volz,R., andWoolf,A. 1999.Preharvest Biol. Technol.15:255-262. of fruit. Postharv. of Goldman,I.L., Kader,A-A., and Heinlz, C. 1999.Influence production,handling,and contentof foods.NutritionReviews.5T(9):Sa6-S52. storage phytonutrient on of PostharvestTechnology Horticultural Crops,secondedition.Publ. Kader,A.A. (ed.). 1992. CA, 296 ppOakland, 331l, Univ. Calif.,Div. Agr. Nat. Resources, Acta Hort.485:203-208. Kader,A.A. 1999.Fruit maturity,ripening,and quality relationships. . BioI. Technol.15:233-247 ce. affectingappearan Postharv. factors Kays,S.J. 1999.Preharvest factorsinfluencingvitamin C and postharvest Lee, S.K. and Kader,A.A. 2000.Preharvest 20:.207-220. contentof horticulturalcrops.Postharv.Biol- Technol. 1999.Preharvest factorsinfluencingflavor of freshfruits and Mattheis,J.P.and Fellman,J.K. -232. chnol. | 5:227 vegetable Postharv.B iol. Te s. and relativehumidity on fresh commodityquality. Paull, R.E. 1999.Effect of temperature | 5:263-277. B Postharv. iol. Technol. Hortfruits and vegetables. of Romig, W.R. 1995. Selection cultivars for lightly processed 30:38-40. Science. PostharvSalrveit,M.E. 1999.Effect of ethyleneon quality of fresh fruits and vegetables. B iol. Technol.| 5:279-292. texture.Posthan BioI. Technol. factors affecting postharvest Sams, C.E. 1999. Preharvest l5:249-251. 2OOO. Fruit andVegetable B. Shewfelt,R.L. and Brtickner, (eds.). Quality,An IntegratedVew. PA, Technomic Publ.Co., Lancaster, 330 pp. Section 3d 2A Fresh-cutFruits and Vegetables:Science,Technology,and Market Section A-E., Ko, N.P-,and Minott, D.A. 1996.Factorsaffectingquality of fresh-cuthortiWatada, 9:l Technol. 15-125. BioI. cultural products.Postharvest Watada,A.E. unO Qi, L. 1999. Quality of fresh-cut produce. Postharv-Biol- Technol15:201-205. quality of factors affecting postharvest Weston,L.A. and Barth, M.M. l9g-7.Preharvest svegetable H ortscience. 32:812-816 New York: RefrigeratedFruits andVegetables(ed.). lgg4. Minimally Processed Wiley, R.C. Chapman& Hall, 368 PP- 3d ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/03/2009 for the course FST 160 taught by Professor Giovanni during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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