flour - 1 Flour I Bread and other yeast leaven baked...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Flour I Bread and other yeast leaven baked products Egypt 1200 BC 2 Flour Production Separation of endosperm from the bran and germ 84% endosperm, 14% bran, 2% germ Milling of kernels to our The milling process involves several rounds of grinding and sifting off coarse particles Each time wheat goes through a roller mill, a little more flour is extracted from the kernel Crushed wheat will be sifted and milled several more times until all the flour is separated from bran and germ Tempered wheat Crushed wheat Milling (Grinding) Wheat to Make Flour Wheat Supplies essential Supplies essential amino acids & amino acids & vitamins needed in vitamins needed in human diet human diet Different types of Different types of wheat kernels wheat kernels (hard red spring, soft (hard red spring, soft white spring, durum white spring, durum wheat & etc.) wheat & etc.) 3 Dietary Fiber Research on health benefts began in 1970s Generally accepted defnition: Non-digestible part o plant oods Total Dietary Fiber = Soluble + Insoluble Soluble (e.g. oat bran) Lowers blood cholesterol Lowers blood glucose Insoluble (e.g. wheat bran) Improves regularity, relieves constipation Dietary Fiber Components Cellulos e (wood & paper CHO) (starch-like, but with a dierent biochemical linkage; indigestible by mammals except ruminants where microorganisms actually break down the cellulose into simple glucose sugars) Hemi-celluloses (a bad term invented by somebody who will not stand up and take the blame) a bunch o complex molecules nobody understands very well. But, a component o dietary fber Gums & mucilages (more dietary fber stu) In 1999, the FDA approved the ollowing health claim submitted by General Mills: Diets rich in whole grain oods and other plant oods and low in total at, saturated at, and cholesterol, may help reduce the risk o heart disease and certain cancers Some cereals on supermarket shelves may state: RICH IN WHOLE GRAIN For oods that bear the claim, whole grain oods are defned as oods that contain 51 percent or more whole grain ingredient(s) by weight Health Claim: Whole Grain Flour Water 12% Protein 7-13% Fat 0.8 - 2% Carbohydrate 71 - 80% Ash 0.3 - 2 % 4 Wheat Starch Granules Wheat Flour Flour Protein (%) Uses Cake 7.5 Cakes, quick breads Instant 9.5-11 Sauces, gravy All-purpose 10-12 Biscuits, quick breads Bread 13-14 Yeast bread, pizza, pasta Durum (semolina) 13 Dried pasta Proteins Nutritional & functional reasons Nutritional & functional reasons Mechanical strength & cooking quality Mechanical strength & cooking quality Critical to mixing & baking process Critical to mixing & baking process Varies 6% up to ~20% Varies 6% up to ~20% For production of bread, our with protein...
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flour - 1 Flour I Bread and other yeast leaven baked...

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