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flour - Flour I Bread and other yeast leaven baked products...

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1 Flour I Bread and other yeast leaven baked products Egypt 1200 BC
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2 Flour Production Separation of endosperm from the bran and germ 84% endosperm, 14% bran, 2% germ Milling of kernels to flour The milling process involves several rounds of grinding and sifting off coarse particles Each time wheat goes through a roller mill, a little more flour is extracted from the kernel Crushed wheat will be sifted and milled several more times until all the flour is separated from bran and germ Tempered wheat Crushed wheat Milling (Grinding) Wheat to Make Flour Wheat Supplies essential Supplies essential amino acids & amino acids & vitamins needed in human diet Different types of Different types of wheat kernels (hard red spring, soft (hard red spring, soft white spring, durum wheat & etc.)
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3 Dietary Fiber Research on health benefits began in 1970’s Generally accepted definition: Non-digestible part of plant foods Total Dietary Fiber = Soluble + Insoluble “Soluble” (e.g. oat bran) Lowers blood cholesterol Lowers blood glucose “Insoluble” (e.g. wheat bran) Improves “regularity,” relieves constipation Dietary Fiber Components Cellulos e (wood & paper CHO)— (starch-like, but with a different biochemical linkage; indigestible by mammals except ruminants where microorganisms actually break down the cellulose into simple glucose sugars) Hemi-celluloses (a bad term invented by somebody who will not stand up and take the blame) — a bunch of complex molecules nobody understands very well. But, a component of dietary fiber Gums & mucilages (more dietary fiber stuff) In 1999, the FDA approved the following health claim submitted by General Mills: “Diets rich in whole grain foods and other plant foods and low in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol, may help reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers” Some cereals on supermarket shelves may state: RICH IN WHOLE GRAIN For foods that bear the claim, whole grain foods are defined as foods that contain 51 percent or more whole grain ingredient(s) by weight Health Claim: Whole Grain Flour • Water 12% • Protein 7-13% Fat 0.8 - 2% Carbohydrate 71 - 80% Ash 0.3 - 2 %
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4 Wheat Starch Granules Wheat Flour Flour Protein (%) Uses Cake 7.5 Cakes, quick breads Instant 9.5-11 Sauces, gravy All-purpose 10-12 Biscuits, quick breads Bread 13-14 Yeast bread, pizza, pasta Durum (semolina) 13 Dried pasta Proteins Nutritional & functional reasons Mechanical strength & cooking quality Mechanical strength & cooking quality Critical to mixing & baking process Varies 6% up to ~20% For production of bread, flour with protein content ~11% is usually preferred
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5 Gliadin & Glutenin Properties Both have small amounts of charged amino acids – low solubility Both have large amounts of glutamine (36-45 mole%)
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