Chapter 12.docx

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The Conflict Between Church and State As secular rulers grew in power among the burgeoning nation-states of medieval Europe, the early  medieval alliance between Church and state slowly deteriorated. The attempts of kings and emperors to  win the allegiance of their subjects—especially those in the newly formed towns—and to enlarge their  financial resources often interfered with papal ambitions and Church decrees. When, for example, King  Philip IV (“the Fair”) of France (1268–1314) attempted to tax the clergy as citizens of the French realm,  Pope Boniface VIII (ca. 1234–1303) protested, threatening to excommunicate and depose the king. In the dispute that followed, Pope Boniface issued the edict  Unam sanctam  (“One [and] Holy [Church]”), the  boldest assertion of spiritual authority ever published. The edict rested upon the centuries-old papal claim  that the Church held primacy over the state, since, while the Church governed the souls of all Christians,  the state governed only their bodies. In the ensuing struggle between popes and kings, the latter would  emerge victorious. By the end of the fourteenth century, as European rulers freed themselves of papal  interference in temporal affairs, the separation of Church and state—each acting as sole authority in its  own domain—would become established practice in the West. Nevertheless,  Unam sanctam  remained  the classic justification for Church supremacy in both temporal and spiritual realms. According to the Church, whether or not a person’s soul went to heaven was determined by their a. Gender b. Random chance c. Social class d. Conduct on earth What characteristics are true of the Franciscan Order? a. Worked among the people b. Accrued wealth c. Renounced luxury d. Was cloistered A renowned student of the Dominicans was a. Innocent III b. Francis of Assisi c. Dante Alighieri d. Thomas Aquinas Clare Affreduccio was a follower of Saint Francis . All of these are types of medieval religious drama except a. Mystery play b. Morality play c. Tragic play d. Miracle play True or false : An allegory is a literary device where two or more things are compared using “like.”
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In Everyman , the soul’s journey begins a. In heaven b. In purgatory c. On earth d. In hell The author of the Divine Comedy is a. Chaucer b. Virgil c. Aristotle d. Dante What are the places Dante explores in the Divine Comedy ? a. Hell, heaven, and Rome b. Limbo, hell, and purgatory c. Heaven, hell, and Florence d. Hell, purgatory, and heaven Dante’s guide through hell is Virgil , the Roman poet who authored the Aeneid.
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