Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry General Chemistry I, General Chemistry I, 2009 Professor Maggie Ciszkowska 2009 Professor Maggie Ciszkowska queous solution? What is it? Aqueous Solutions Reactions in Aqueous Solutions General Chemistry I, General Chemistry I, 2009 Professor Maggie Ciszkowska 2009 Professor Maggie Ciszkowska Aqueous solution? What is it? Solution composed of water (or other solvent ) and something dissolved in that solvent ( solute ). General Chemistry I, General Chemistry I, 2009 Professor Maggie Ciszkowska 2009 Professor Maggie Ciszkowska Aqueous Solutions Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Some aqueous solutions conduct electricity; why? Read section 4.1 very carefully. electrolytes non-electrolytes (conduct electricity) (do not conduct electricity) (when dissolved in water) (when dissolved in water) strong electrolytes weak electrolytes ionic compounds most molecular compounds some molecular compounds like acids Aqueous Solutions Reactions in Aqueous Solutions General Chemistry I, General Chemistry I, 2009 Professor Maggie Ciszkowska 2009 Professor Maggie Ciszkowska Ionic compounds in water: solid NaCl contains Na + and Cl ions, arranged in a crystal structure when dissolved in water ionic solid dissociate into its component ions; positive and negative ions are hydrated (solvated) by water molecules (dipoles). Dissociation in water: Na 2 SO 4 2 Na + + SO 4 2 NaClO 4 Na + + ClO 4 KCN K + + CN MgCl 2 Mg 2+ + 2 Cl Electrolytes General Chemistry I, General Chemistry I, 2009 Professor Maggie Ciszkowska 2009 Professor Maggie Ciszkowska Some molecular compounds in water: HCl (gas) molecular compound when dissolved in water it dissociates into ions, H + and Cl ; positive and negative ions are hydrated (solvated) by water molecules (dipoles). All acids the same process! Dissociation in water (for acids H + ): HCl H + + Cl HClO 4 H + + ClO 4 H 2 SO 4 2 H + + SO 4 2 HBrO H + + BrO Electrolytes General Chemistry I, General Chemistry I, 2009 Professor Maggie Ciszkowska 2009 Professor Maggie Ciszkowska Solubility of compounds in water: the amount of the compound that can be dissolved in a given quantity of water (at a given temperature). if less than 0.01 mol/liter insoluble (@ 25 o C) if more than 0.01 mol/liter soluble (@ 25 o C) Reactions in Aqueous Solutions: Precipitation General Chemistry I, General Chemistry I, 2009 Professor Maggie Ciszkowska 2009 Professor Maggie Ciszkowska Soluble ionic compounds: salts with alkali metal ions (group 1A) and ammonium ion: Li + , Na + , K + , , NH 4 + salts with nitrate ion: NO 3 salts with acetate ion: C 3 H 3 O 2 salts with chloride Cl , bromide Br , iodide ion I ; except when with : Ag + , Hg 2 2+ , and Pb 2+ (AgCl, Hg 2 Cl 2 and PbCl 2 are insoluble in water)....
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2009 for the course CHEM 0207 taught by Professor Cizkowska during the Spring '09 term at CUNY Brooklyn.

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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution...

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