02-23-09 Notes

02-23-09 Notes - Pope Urban II and the First...

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The Crusades: European Responses to Islam and Christian Heresies Crusades and the Values of Medieval European Culture? Order and Hierarchy, Optimism and Confidence Religious Reform and the Influence of Popes The Idea of “Papal Monarchy,” View of Islam Power over European Kings, Military Action Against Muslims Assault on Heresies in Europe 1. Pope’s Relation to Kings Monarchs Challenge Papal Power Lay Investiture (Kings appoint church leaders) Simony (Kings sell church offices) English Kings after 1066: William the Conqueror, Battle of Hastings Bayeux Tapestry Henry II (1154-1189) of England; Murder of Becket (Canterbury) Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085), Conflicts over Appointments Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire (German) Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) Claims Higher Authority
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Unformatted text preview: Pope Urban II and the First Crusade (1095-1099) Urban’s Speech at Clermont, Popular vs. Elite Crusades Crusader Kingdom in Palestine Significance of Papal Influence, Later Crusades 2. Hostility to Islam Western Cultural Identity, “Right Order in the World” Confidence in Christianity, Defining a Hierarchy of Cultures Christian Pilgrimages to Jerusalem 3. Repression of Heresy and Unorthodox Ideas in Europe Peter Waldo (Valdes), Waldensians (c. 1170), View of clergy Albigensians (Cathars), Anti-Materialism (view of Jesus) Crusades against Heresy, Violent Anti-Semitism Contrasting Papal views of Franciscans, Obedience to Pope Heresy or Reform? Legacy of Crusades?...
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