11-10-08%20-%20Lecture%2018%20-%20Fund.%20I%2c%20J%2c%20K

11-10-08%20-%20Lecture%2018%20-%20Fund.%20I%2c%20J%2c%20K -...

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Aqueous Solutions An ionic compound, CuCl 2 , in water.
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Electrolytes
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Solubility Rules (Table I.1) Soluble Insoluble Group 1: Li + , Na + , K + , Rb + , Cs + Carbonates (CO 3 2- ) Chromates (CrO 4 2- ) Oxalates (C 2 O 4 2- ) Phosphates (PO 4 3- ) EXCEPT Group 1 and NH 4 + Ammonium salts: NH 4 + Sulfides (S 2- ) EXCEPT Group 1, Group 2 and NH 4 + The Halides Cl‾, Br‾, I‾ EXCEPT Ag + , Hg 2 2+ , Pb 2+ * Hydroxides (OH‾) EXCEPT Group 1, Group 2**, and NH 4 + Nitrates (NO 3 - ) Acetates (CH 3 CO 2 - ) Chlorates (ClO 3 - ) Perchlorates (ClO 4 - ) Oxides (O 2- ) EXCEPT Group 1, Group 2 Sulfates (SO 4 2- ) EXCEPT Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ , Pb 2+ , Hg 2 2+ , and Ag + *** *PbCl 2 slightly soluble **Mg(OH) 2 very slightly soluble ***Ag 2 SO 4 slightly soluble Ca(OH) 2 , Sr(OH) 2 slightly soluble
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ACIDS: Release H + ions in water The common strong acids are: HCl hydrochloric acid HBr hyrobromic acid HI hydroiodic acid H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid (to HSO 4 - ) HClO 3 chloric acid HClO 4 perchloric acid HNO 3 nitric acid
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BASES: Release OH - ions in water The common strong bases are: Group 1 hydroxides Ca(OH) 2 , Sr(OH) 2 , Ba(OH)
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