09-16-08 - 10-02-08 Notes

09-16-08 - 10-02-08 Notes - Heuristics and Biases...

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Heuristics and Biases 1. a. Heuristic – Mental short-cuts, “rules of thumb,” or quick and easy decision rules b. Bias – Predisposition to think, feel or act in a particular way c. In 2002 Daniel Kahneman, a psychologist, won Nobel Prize in economics (Amos Tversky deceased) 2. Representatives a. Make judgments based on the basis of perceived “typicality” to categories or events 3. Availability a. Make judgments on the basis of what comes to mind most quickly or easily. b. Available content – What information comes to mind c. Availability experiences – How easily information comes to mind 4. Simulation a. Looking forward: The future and what may be i. Most available simulation judged most probable b. Looking backward: The past and what might have been i. Most available simulation judged most probable 5. Counterfactual Thinking a. Thoughts about what might have been, which are different than what actually happened b. What produces counterfactual thinking? i. Proximal vs. Distal (Close vs. Far) ii. Exception vs. Routine (Unusual vs. Usual) iii. Commission vs. Omission (Action vs. Nonaction)
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c. Sanna et al 2003 i. Purpose: To examine counterfactual thinking: 1. Spontaneously (without experimental prompting) 2. “On-line” (while event is occurring) 3. Naturalistic setting (nonlaboratory) ii. Results: Spontaneous “on-line” counterfactuals
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2009 for the course PSYC 065 taught by Professor Sanna during the Fall '08 term at UNC.

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09-16-08 - 10-02-08 Notes - Heuristics and Biases...

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