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Urinary+System - Chapter 26 Theurinary Urinary System...

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Chapter 26 The Urinary System Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder & urethra Urine flows from each kidney, down its ureter to the bladder and to the outside via the urethra Filter the blood and return most of water and solutes to the bloodstream
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Overview of Kidney Functions Regulation of blood ionic composition Na+, K+, Ca+2, Cl- and phosphate ions Regulation of blood pH, osmolarity & glucose Regulation of blood volume conserving or eliminating water Regulation of blood pressure secreting the enzyme renin adjusting renal resistance Release of erythropoietin & calcitriol Excretion of wastes & foreign substances
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External Anatomy of Kidney Blood vessels & ureter enter hilus of kidney Renal capsule = transparent membrane maintains organ shape Adipose capsule that helps protect from trauma Renal fascia = dense, irregular connective tissue that holds against back body wall
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Urinary Bladder The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ situated in the pelvic cavity posterior to the pubic symphysis. Anatomy and Histology of the Urinary Bladder In the floor of the urinary bladder is a small, smooth triangular area, the trigone . The ureters enter the urinary bladder near two posterior points in the triangle; the urethra drains the urinary bladder from the anterior point of the triangle (Figure 26.21).
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Histology of Urinary Bladder 3 layers in wall mucosa is transitional epithelium & lamina propria since organ must inflate & deflate mucus prevents the cells from being contacted by urine muscularis (known as detrusor muscle) 3 layers of smooth muscle inner longitudinal, middle circular & outer longitudinal circular smooth muscle fibers form internal urethral sphincter circular skeletal muscle forms external urethral sphincter adventitia layer of loose connective tissue
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Blood Vessels around the Nephron
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