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philosophy midterm - Philosophy Ethics Test 1 The...

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Philosophy Ethics Test 1) The underlying question in ethics is where moral facts are located. Where these moral facts are located determines what they are. People throughout the world have different morals that they follow, things they think are right are wrong, but there are three separate theories for where these facts are located, how they come up with them. Subjectivism simply means that ones moral facts are determined and located in oneself. These moralities are based on their feelings and beliefs of certain practices. There are various theories under subjectivism; For instance simple subjectivism where someone if someone thinks something is right, then it is right. This theorie can be easily refuted while Hume argues that normal humans have sympathetic responses, so morality can be subjective without giving up its morale truth. Objectivists on the other hand believe moral facts are located in the outside world. They believe moral facts are determined by the effect actions have on the outside world. Further conventionalists believe morale facts are located in relevant standards, for instance one popular theory is culture relativism where people believe what is right or wrong is relevant to a person’s culture. The difference between objectivism and relativism is simply that they take into consideration different factors on what is right and wrong. Objectivists look strictly at the world, from circumstances and situations, and how actions have an influence on the world, therefore moral facts are the same for everyone from every culture. For instance murdering someone would be bad because it has a negative effect on the world. On the other hand relativists simply compare an act to set standards like culture. They believe culturally diverse standards define what is write or wrong for different people, not from their direct effects on the world. For this reason people and cultures can have different views of what is right and wrong. 2) Although there are many theories for relativism and subjectivism in ethics, most of them are for bad reasons. One main reason for this is because some people find it hard to be objective in something like ethics because it has little similarities with something tangible in the weird world, like science, but this is not true. For instance many are subjectivist or objectivist because there are is disagreement about what is right and wrong. At the same time though many people disagree about what is right or wrong in science 3) The theory of personal subjectivism if put simply is that if a person thinks something is right or wrong, then something is right or wrong. For instance, according to personal subjectivism murder would be morally wrong if I thought it was wrong. When it is put simply, it is very easy to refute as Moore shows. If something is right or wrong only by what a person thinks, then one person can assert an action is right, and another person can assert an action is wrong. Although the two people would be in disagreement, if personal subjectivism were true then there wouldn’t be disagreement because according
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to the thesis they are both true.
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