Unformatted text preview: Poisonous Mushrooms
March 31st, 2009 Toxic Compounds in Fungi Ergot Aflatoxin Fusarium toxins Stachybotrys Macrofungi? Poisonous Mushrooms Mycophile Mycophage Mycophobe How do we learn the difference between edible and poisonous mushrooms? Historically…
“During the course of human history I would suspect that all 10,000 species of agarics have been eaten. What have we learned from the trying, tragic or transcendental experiences of those who made random or unconventional choices of mushroom for their free meal? “ Trial and error Kendrick, The Fifth Kingdom How accurate? There are old mushroom hunters and there are bold mushroom hunters, but there are no old, bold mushroom hunters…. Right??? Charles MacIlvaine The importance of identification No absolute test Mushrooms vary geographically – Tarnish a silver coin – Tastes bad – Other animals won’t eat Even old Iron Gut sampled carefully and carried a stomach pump with him Incidence of mushroom poisoning 5 in every 100,000 6 deaths a year Increasing with emphasis on healthy, natural and organic diets Cornell Mushroom Blog http://blog.mycology.cornell.edu/?cat=7 Recent mushroom fatality http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/california/lamepoison122009mar12,0,3482791.story Kinds of Poisoning Amanitin Poisoning Coprine Poisoning Gyromitrin Poisoning Muscarine Poisoning GastroIntestinal Irritants, food allergies, food poisoning, pesticide contamination, panic reactions Amanitin Poisoning Amatoxins bind RNA polymerase II – protein builder Liver and kidney affected After 512 hours: vomiting, pain, symptoms pass 2448 hours: liver failure, coma, death Mortality: 1060% The Destroying Angel Identifying Amanita mushrooms Volvariella volvacea
Paddy straw mushroom Also in Galerina and Conocybe species Treatment Activated charcoal Milk thistle extract Penicillin G Liver transplant Gyromitrin Poisoning Monomethyl hydrazine – jet fuel Inhibits electron transport chain Liver/kidney problems Ingestion or fumes from cooking – 612 hours: Fullness/bloating, vomiting, headache – 36 hours: Jaundice, convulsions, coma, death False Morels Gyromitra & Helvella Morchella angusticeps White morel Black Morel Morchella esculenta Debates on edibility Differences in sensitivity in people Differences in amount of toxins in each fruit body Accumulation of toxin It is not probable that in our great foodgiving country anyone will be narrowed to false morels for a meal. Until such an emergency arrives, the species would be better let alone.
C. MacIlvaine Coprine Poisoning Antabuse syndrome 510 min after alcohol, up to 5 days after – Blocks activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase eating the mushroom Present in some Coprinus – Flushed, swelling, sweating, vomiting, tachycardia, anxiety, hypotension, headache – Toxic acetaldehydes build up in bloodstream Coprinus atramentarius – tippler’s bane Muscarine Poisoning PSL syndrome 1530 minutes after eating: perspiration, salivation, lacrimation Deaths rare Symptoms last a few hours Inocybe, Clitocybe, Amanita muscaria Other Gastrointestinal distress Food allergy Food poisoning Panic Reaction Pesticide contamination How to avoid the panic reaction Panic before you eat – be cautious Learn poisonous mushrooms first Be sure of your identification
North American Mycological Association http://www.namyco.org/clubs/index.html Cornell Mushroom Club http://www.plantpath.cornell.edu/Labs/Hodge/MushroomClub.html Eat small amount Don’t mix new mushrooms Save a specimen or two Dig up the whole mushroom Always eat fresh specimens in good condition, and always cook them ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2009 for the course PLPA 2010 taught by Professor Hudler during the Spring '08 term at Cornell.
- Spring '08