gph exam 3

Gph exam 3 - Oceans Vocab NOAA Sodium Chloride Salinity Gradients Warm and Cold Currents Gyres Thermohaline Circulation Neap and Spring Tides

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Oceans Vocab: NOAA, Sodium Chloride, Salinity Gradients, Warm and Cold Currents, Gyres, Thermohaline Circulation, Neap and Spring Tides, Waves (Wind Speed, Duration, Fetch), Breakers Points of Emphasis: 1. The ocean is thermally stable (cold at the bottom and warm at the surface). 2. Saltiness gradients exist across the ocean surface, and along with winds, produce ocean currents. 3. Upwelling occurs where water flows offshore thereby drawing cold water to the surface. 4. Cold ocean currents stabilize the atmosphere and warm ocean currents destabilize the atmosphere. 5. El Niño – warm water in tropical Pacific – strong teleconnections with climate in North America. 6. Spring tides have large daily tidal variations caused by the Moon and Sun being aligned. Neap tides have low daily tidal variations caused by the Moon and Sun being at right angles with respect to the Earth. 7. Waves increase with longer fetch (distance over which the wind blows over the water), higher wind speeds, and longer wind duration. Continental Drift Vocab: Hutton (1790s), Playfair (1800s), Darwin (1850s), Wegener (1920s), Congruency, Fossils, Mountains, Scars, Sial, Sima, Convective Currents, Trenches, Subduction Zones Points of Emphasis: 1. Alfred Wegener found evidence for continental drift – congruency of the continents, fossil remains, glacial scars, and mountain formations. 2. The congruency of the continents was further improved with the discovery of the continental shelves. 3. Large convective currents initiate sea-floor spreading and are seen as mountainous features beneath the sea. 4. Evidence of shifts in the Earth’s magnetic pole further supported the continental drift theory. 5. Plates collide to form mountains and subduction zones (with associated trenches).
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6. Continents are made up of silica and aluminum (Sial) while the ocean bottom is silica and magnesium (Sima). Faults and Folds
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2009 for the course GPH 23108 taught by Professor Brazel during the Spring '09 term at ASU.

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Gph exam 3 - Oceans Vocab NOAA Sodium Chloride Salinity Gradients Warm and Cold Currents Gyres Thermohaline Circulation Neap and Spring Tides

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