Sociology FINAL EXAM SPRING 2016.docx - Introduction to...

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Introduction to Sociology Final Exam (Cumulative): QUIZ 1 Culture shock The disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life. Stereotyping – Assumptions of what people are like, whether true or false. Ethnocentrism – The use of ones own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors. Cultural relativity – (cultural relativism) – not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms. Subcultures – the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world o The values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world o The values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within its own. - Ex. body builders, models, ethnic groups, motorcycle enthusiasts etc.
Deviant culture – Deviant means departing from the norm, and to a sociologist, that can be biased toward the positive or negative. o Deviance – the violation of norms (or rules or expectations) o While there are crimes that are certainly deviant because they are outside the norm (such as murder, rape, etc.), there are also crimes that are not deviant. Take speeding for example. It isn't at all unexpected to see someone speeding. From a sociological perspective, speeding would not be considered deviant in most cities in the United States. Counterculture – A group who’s values, beliefs, norms, and related behaviors place its members in oppositions to the broader culture o A group whose values, beliefs, norms, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture - Ex. Hell's Angels, Pagans Moral holiday practitioners – Specified times when people are allowed to break norms. Example: Mardi Gras Mores – norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values or the well-being of the group o Norms that strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values or the well-being of the group o Essential to core values - Ex: No rape or murder Folkway – norms that are no strictly enforced
o Norms that are not strictly enforced Taboo – a norm so strong that it brings extremem sanctions, even revulsion, if violated o A norm so strong that it brings extreme sanctions, even revulsion, if violated o The thought of violations causes revulsion - Ex: Eating human flesh Total institutions – A place that is almost totally controlled by those who run it, in which people are cut of from the rest of society and the society is mostly cut of from them Rituals- ceremonies or repetitive practices; in religion, observances, or rises often intended to evoke a sense of awe of the scared Morally compromising - to go against your morals Anticipatory socializing agents - Anticipatory

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